mozilla

Mozilla Nederland LogoDe Nederlandse
Mozilla-gemeenschap

Abonneren op feed Mozilla planet
Planet Mozilla - https://planet.mozilla.org/
Bijgewerkt: 2 dagen 8 uur geleden

Ryan Harter: Getting Credit for Invisible Work

do, 03/06/2021 - 09:00

Last month I gave a talk at csv,conf on "Getting Credit for Invisible Work". The (amazing) csv,conf organizers just published a recording of the talk. (slides here). Give it a watch! It's only 20m long (including the Q&A).

Invisible work is a concept I've been trying to …

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

About:Community: Firefox 89: The New Contributors To MR1

wo, 02/06/2021 - 21:29

Firefox 89 would not have been possible without our community, and it is a great privilege for us to thank all the developers who contributed their first code change to MR1, 44 of whom were brand new volunteers!

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Data@Mozilla: This week in Glean: Glean Dictionary updates

wo, 02/06/2021 - 18:16

(“This Week in Glean” is a series of blog posts that the Glean Team at Mozilla is using to try to communicate better about our work. They could be release notes, documentation, hopes, dreams, or whatever: so long as it is inspired by Glean.) All “This Week in Glean” blog posts are listed in the TWiG index (and on the Mozilla Data blog).

Lots of progress on the Glean Dictionary since I made the initial release announcement a couple of months ago. For those coming in late, the Glean Dictionary is intended to be a data dictionary for applications built using the Glean SDK and Glean.js. This currently includes Firefox for Android and Firefox iOS, as well as newer initiatives like Rally. Desktop Firefox will use Glean in the future, see Firefox on Glean (FoG).

Production URL

We’re in production! You can now access the Glean Dictionary at dictionary.telemetry.mozilla.org. The old protosaur-based URL will redirect.

Glean Dictionary + Looker = ❤️

At the end of last year, Mozilla chose Looker as our internal business intelligence tool. Frank Bertsch, Daniel Thorn, Anthony Miyaguchi and others have been building out first class support for Glean applications inside this platform, and we’re starting to see these efforts bear fruit. Looker’s explores are far easier to use for basic data questions, opening up data based inquiry to a much larger cross section of Mozilla.

I recorded a quick example of this integration here:

Note that Looker access is restricted to Mozilla employees and NDA’d volunteers. Stay tuned for more public data to be indexed inside the Glean Dictionary in the future.

Glean annotations!

I did up the first cut of a GitHub-based system for adding annotations to metrics – acting as a knowledge base for things data scientists and others have discovered about Glean Telemetry in the field. This can be invaluable when doing new analysis. A good example of this is the annotation added for the opened as default browser metric for Firefox for iOS, which has several gotchas:

Many thanks to Krupa Raj and Leif Oines for producing the requirements which led up to this implementation, as well as their evangelism of this work more generally inside Mozilla. Last month, Leif and I did a presentation about this at Data Club, which has been syndicated onto YouTube:

Since then, we’ve had a very successful working session with some people Data Science and have started to fill out an initial set of annotations. You can see the progress in the glean-annotations repository.

Other Improvements

Lots more miscellaneous improvements and fixes have gone into the Glean Dictionary in the last several months: see our releases for a full list. One thing that irrationally pleases me are the new labels Linh Nguyen added last week: colorful and lively, they make it easy to see when a Glean Metric is coming from a library:

Future work

The Glean Dictionary is just getting started! In the next couple of weeks, we’re hoping to:

  • Expand the Looker integration outlined above, as our deploy takes more shape.
  • Work on adding “feature” classification to the Glean Dictionary, to make it easier for product managers and other non-engineering types to quickly find the metrics and other information they need without needing to fully understand what’s in the source tree.
  • Continue to refine the user interface of the Glean Dictionary as we get more feedback from people using it across Mozilla.

If you’re interested in getting involved, join us! The Glean Dictionary is developed in the open using cutting edge front-end technologies like Svelte. Our conviction is that being transparent about the data Mozilla collects helps us build trust with our users and the community. We’re a friendly group and hang out on the #glean-dictionary channel on Matrix.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

William Lachance: Glean Dictionary updates

wo, 02/06/2021 - 18:01

(this is a cross-post from the data blog)

Lots of progress on the Glean Dictionary since I made the initial release announcement a couple of months ago. For those coming in late, the Glean Dictionary is intended to be a data dictionary for applications built using the Glean SDK and Glean.js. This currently includes Firefox for Android and Firefox iOS, as well as newer initiatives like Rally. Desktop Firefox will use Glean in the future, see Firefox on Glean (FoG).

Production URL

We’re in production! You can now access the Glean Dictionary at dictionary.telemetry.mozilla.org. The old protosaur-based URL will redirect.

Glean Dictionary + Looker = ❤️

At the end of last year, Mozilla chose Looker as our internal business intelligence tool. Frank Bertsch, Daniel Thorn, Anthony Miyaguchi and others have been building out first class support for Glean applications inside this platform, and we’re starting to see these efforts bear fruit. Looker’s explores are far easier to use for basic data questions, opening up data based inquiry to a much larger cross section of Mozilla.

I recorded a quick example of this integration here:

Note that Looker access is restricted to Mozilla employees and NDA’d volunteers. Stay tuned for more public data to be indexed inside the Glean Dictionary in the future.

Glean annotations!

I did up the first cut of a GitHub-based system for adding annotations to metrics — acting as a knowledge base for things data scientists and others have discovered about Glean Telemetry in the field. This can be invaluable when doing new analysis. A good example of this is the annotation added for the opened as default browser metric for Firefox for iOS, which has several gotchas:

Many thanks to Krupa Raj and Leif Oines for producing the requirements which led up to this implementation, as well as their evangelism of this work more generally inside Mozilla. Last month, Leif and I did a presentation about this at Data Club, which has been syndicated onto YouTube:

Since then, we’ve had a very successful working session with some people Data Science and have started to fill out an initial set of annotations. You can see the progress in the glean-annotations repository.

Other Improvements

Lots more miscellaneous improvements and fixes have gone into the Glean Dictionary in the last several months: see our releases for a full list. One thing that irrationally pleases me are the new labels Linh Nguyen added last week: colorful and lively, they make it easy to see when a Glean Metric is coming from a library:

Future work

The Glean Dictionary is just getting started! In the next couple of weeks, we’re hoping to:

  • Expand the Looker integration outlined above, as our deploy takes more shape.
  • Work on adding “feature” classification to the Glean Dictionary, to make it easier for product managers and other non-engineering types to quickly find the metrics and other information they need without needing to fully understand what’s in the source tree.
  • Continue to refine the user interface of the Glean Dictionary as we get more feedback from people using it across Mozilla.

If you’re interested in getting involved, join us! The Glean Dictionary is developed in the open using cutting edge front-end technologies like Svelte. Our conviction is that being transparent about the data Mozilla collects helps us build trust with our users and the community. We’re a friendly group and hang out on the #glean-dictionary channel on Matrix.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Mozilla Security Blog: Updating GPG key for signing Firefox Releases

wo, 02/06/2021 - 10:29

Mozilla offers GPG signing to let you verify the integrity of our Firefox builds. GPG signatures for Linux based builds are particularly important, because it allows Linux distributions and other repackagers to verify that the source code they use to build Firefox actually comes from Mozilla.

We regularly rotate our GPG signing subkey — usually every two years — to guard against the unlikely possibility that the key has been leaked without our knowledge. Last week, such a rotation happened, and we switched over to the new signing subkey.

The new GPG subkey’s fingerprint is 14F2 6682 D091 6CDD 81E3 7B6D 61B7 B526 D98F 0353, and will expire on 2023-05-17.

If you are interested in performing a verification of your copy of Firefox, you can fetch the public key directly from our KEY files from the Firefox 89 release, or alternatively directly from below.

 

-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- mQINBFWpQAQBEAC+9wVlwGLy8ILCybLesuB3KkHHK+Yt1F1PJaI30X448ttGzxCz PQpH6BoA73uzcTReVjfCFGvM4ij6qVV2SNaTxmNBrL1uVeEUsCuGduDUQMQYRGxR tWq5rCH48LnltKPamPiEBzrgFL3i5bYEUHO7M0lATEknG7Iaz697K/ssHREZfuuc B4GNxXMgswZ7GTZO3VBDVEw5GwU3sUvww93TwMC29lIPCux445AxZPKr5sOVEsEn dUB2oDMsSAoS/dZcl8F4otqfR1pXg618cU06omvq5yguWLDRV327BLmezYK0prD3 P+7qwEp8MTVmxlbkrClS5j5pR47FrJGdyupNKqLzK+7hok5kBxhsdMsdTZLd4tVR jXf04isVO3iFFf/GKuwscOi1+ZYeB3l3sAqgFUWnjbpbHxfslTmo7BgvmjZvAH5Z asaewF3wA06biCDJdcSkC9GmFPmN5DS5/Dkjwfj8+dZAttuSKfmQQnypUPaJ2sBu blnJ6INpvYgsEZjV6CFG1EiDJDPu2Zxap8ep0iRMbBBZnpfZTn7SKAcurDJptxin CRclTcdOdi1iSZ35LZW0R2FKNnGL33u1IhxU9HRLw3XuljXCOZ84RLn6M+PBc1eZ suv1TA+Mn111yD3uDv/u/edZ/xeJccF6bYcMvUgRRZh0sgZ0ZT4b0Q6YcQARAQAB tC9Nb3ppbGxhIFNvZnR3YXJlIFJlbGVhc2VzIDxyZWxlYXNlQG1vemlsbGEuY29t PokCOAQTAQIAIgUCValABAIbAwYLCQgHAwIGFQgCCQoLBBYCAwECHgECF4AACgkQ Ybe1JtmPA1NQqg//Rr6/V7uLqrIwx0UFknyNJasRJZhUkYxdGsLD18zO0Na8Ve3Q sYpOC3ojpqaFUzpqm6KNv8eXfd/Ku7j3WGr9kPkbjZNghvy6V5Lva4JkxO6LMxKk JYqiqF2o1Gfda8NfcK08GFy4C0L8zNwlADvmdMo4382tmHNGbTTft7BeVaRrE9xW 9eGmGQ2jYOsjxb5MsadAdZUuK8IC95ZHlUDR3gH9KqhfbQWp5Bo924Kiv+f2JUzN rrG98eOm1Qb8F9rePzZ2DOYRJyOe4p8Gpl+kojCXNntkJgcwJ1a1yRE6wy9RzpeB lCeoQuLS92MNne+deQZUskTZFoYXUadf6vbdfqL0nuPCKdl9lhef1QNwE30IRymt 6fhJCFffFQjGdeMfSiCHgcI8ichQbrzhBCGGR3bAHan9c2EbQ+puqG3Aa0YjX6Db GJjWOI6A61bqSPepLCMVaXqV2mZEIaZWdZkOHjnRrU6CJdXG/+D4m1YBZwYM60eJ kNu4eMMwMFnRsHiWf7bhqKptwuk8HyIGp2o4j8iqrFRVJEbK/ctdhA3H1AlKug9f NrfwCfqhNCSBju97V03U26j04JMn9nrZ2UEGbpty+8ONTb38WX5/oC61BgwV8Ki4 6Lwyb7fImUzz8jE83pjh7s3+NCKvvbH+VfT12f+V/fsphN3EwGwJPTC3fX2IRgQQ EQIABgUCVaz/SwAKCRB2JUA9fw0VsVNkAKDjhUW5GyFNcyj9ot48v+lSh5GBIACf Ten/Rpo5tf77Uq7445cVs80EK5CIRgQQEQIABgUCVa064wAKCRDDTldH4j3WdwW5 AKCVDRxKjb/XYqGhjBCKYhbQ4xJuOACfVIpzE3wGLC/cm9eUnSVnv+elQnKIXgQQ EQgABgUCVgZXYwAKCRACWrAQaxfqHqzWAP9dzEHoZNwH5JYxotudv3FOotVThaQr jnk+5StnObpxnAD9FmYyAyYGh4o7axeDCgmW1J89+1cZtDnFPKnBpGFMB4uIXgQQ EQoABgUCVa0s/gAKCRDwqefc055FLpQGAP99Z2ISKW+7FYoKJ3vDrxTtfcbZEff7 8ufoinmAlZb2bQD/a2fOcprjWDal9Orfq7g6htkX3VISemg+SDQ/ig+b3uyJARwE EAECAAYFAlWs/X4ACgkQs8WpWFCKQ/JrjAf7B+fGzEs8xfc010a6KZXcO1W4/Va0 Q+zcqF+DpQwK7b3S6oD5tCVKD9oFyDXkrlT6Tnwuu+slZwRDIyH6hI6tPb3G8Gsk vjXMeL0IdgZsw1DSxN0pZ0Z9mxFq/UkC/6TmFA1IJmOWtFCH/1irQWqbDxPmWp+d Xs2EhH8QzX1KQOE9v/YlsCdmTstMiHy3R8r7prsonpCa36zGheC/UNDpycKdT8JL zeCFcIWXmA7SCTeJ0XCSuS68FOwfe7nn9oagQZZe/6gh5ecuCoW9HLBWpyIPqUCz 1CXSImLc6BbZYMpAetacarVPa6hiltNicxFE/A3T1F8ZjAcugPKBngUR/4kBHAQQ AQIABgUCVa0XXAAKCRBlc4Lb/yURCkCYB/95w/9/0rpi+5xtoO2NR0KlqYVG5+NF 1r42XB6t7gVJ9UGF3meV+ekgDSzNrfroqxpzWmV1t3MRJeSMmVS25nC1hAZVQHKd gX9xVxW3SSufX/jPstvo2U/X3k8q8PhLS6Ihk8YJC3ScjMiNMRpkITMeVdXsdQsY WStiT48wlWK4gSNMCG5iovdGDTEKErHTIWJl/Wx5el1kvUwg1rKo9uRS2CS/lnlV 6YztDY0cBBOqXP6pXXiWBuVW39LJxsSHq13vpeQ/GHeDxAJ6Y+fPuaV3qBmGZ91o 1/HkxTABFPkISylkPo/2PCoo4Hu31MZ0jQWdihJ7gzf+B7/w6whS79eAiQEcBBAB AgAGBQJVrWVaAAoJEOQyfGw+ApnAc7AH/0TKg3VR4IEB3NP2C7dX/72PWO0EOh8J w67XDccRK0lXDILg/CujsYq9EzEofv2LmQFvCuCkoBFEcGas+J2vP3jsY/G5bjZp XALHkAx7MKlOgsgfeVqMtwaHIoR+y9Hg12TjM7Gt970UBwTIqC8SG6Z1bVWxUdc+ 7Zsn43Dq8z99saOUKD6HMyl9upbjAYwL28NRQtIrNiDZ5lEmDOLh+4hWblxjxWMX AKjg6sucrNzKD2uKGe9XdB6IkYpdfrNGPtgcnXWdfaRNk16eGVzWDVI/9mkY/G+L E40eK6oRyMf736CvlQjcv7JBVGTsj3W28phNLLU0UidYK/QmS3AVmBeJARwEEAEC AAYFAlXBWXAACgkQiRc/lXxV+V6gKQf/d/KfgiYg0Z4dqO3g1p40sgLuxVplhpDk J4yP5K2isdb6I7GJykVw+po6tUCfB7KeLWiZy0I3KJDU1Ikk+Jv3uGSRMT1riSpM Ja2pVhh+jaamHIFj2o0mG9HmEAuGKktJH8s6Jax3SiPGODRhFO8suc7B8FpB7f5q TUDK2J18MlnSK3NN1/zl6OdXScrISQ0cNyJ0RMgW5RSXC7wKzR89tfcDK1wInD8r cOMHz6Va5g8ehq2XCPKvBAlgo8El17+4UaRLhS0suVz4THPsGASYzZVKIhQQBf+8 xDXd6zJ/UgkC4iBWHtLm5jvm6Xhsu04s28TmgiH4FKLsstAUFzbiQYkBHAQQAQIA BgUCVdIa6gAKCRCtfLmfgki6D8xCB/9Q+rCTDQCbWQkRoSV77+kmIb+KVFTcgxfR Z1L0bKL5YqI6HuCJLgU1ioTxq8W4g+SDv4s69/LIajYYZvSRNv0kGRzm2D4vpcnw ymyYCJkzcZkuBeyR50S69+1cStbFb7jZMpyZ6rwnKdYOccDSMdaynJGt4rqiY+ra DPF0H4LExx9a1JFh21Fd0MDc15vsoRZtrOkM8QaKD85hZ/AGOwlw+Kb3DEfjNGcv nuNp54HfJc0Z5kwVYoOKUatBgjLpRRvl43lUGRaaCCMaNpNZXM20ZhrbTjXRlko8 QVMUXqE20sDNwv+dDa6G8nBkIGNIHeixrVrVPP7hH5JRMtjZbsWFiQEcBBABCAAG BQJVrQFGAAoJEFbucY3ODhVLNDgH/izNHcsr1BRnV3yQ6T9sTJJ187BwF1hRLR+Y 3op+fJr+nQ9301XAqLqNbzEB91hRUi2Gb8LTZxxq0gahWzSqmdAE0ObXGGlrEmfj FSSTFyQ1xRvzooYNZzTjN91XX1dERjyj9SOHBETsZrN01BZB1t3EgoDM7PCNTsX0 qC65unWvBDftnLdiJ6s3UC9sorMk8q3Zl6DacFw8QKSmJL1R0OPvXiSOZtGQK9Jg YyHiXQE3MOP5SFSk61e1IawocYn32CXM+EkgtXK5q/thc8OdwsgLAJmGpVB3qd2K 9OaEOKCUV/V91a2P8hCx8MMV2sQgHcMB221wDIWbD5PTHNtCegaJARwEEAEIAAYF AlWtIrEACgkQo9ZSFzt2Po+mXgf/dUPf6q+aDFoDjLIsfJH5QS8Nn/7frUUdElg8 PdGxtZ6SQep6uR5fgc+PwOElhUxa665WYtRJ459RWAYmbh2kkP/paGBf9nW0A2wS koXyJNydJcanyjwHyqKUbBLsXJAvGFtbYRsbeXkEPM5CaKgRUwc8Ilzo9/53CZF/ avZK4FJX00lZq0/Z8dIY8jUEF64IbJgbaUe1gkuxu7zURgjVKK4bb4lLy/s3tRe0 00hrKVbFcaNoIZs+Vk/3A/TFdYHFY6I2JpLIeSSJd/Ywh6/YZfGkSHfzn87Dfkyr gXKQMQ5JvQQgKbO6GPBZSygxWU7R2tNNAJKHSh0/PJ8J7yrqj4kBHAQQAQgABgUC Va05AwAKCRD20Pdh3MzspCvWB/9DAEaNx5WF3ktmw6jP5cCv60HDwgsmJHusGyAo 53Gwjo4Fx6hv5QYQpTbO4af+4KpFGkex+bZniOJWpT+NJkhx55xbzA903MoZ9+dI oCtG4K41kA2mMYSpR097yF3fwtuP70UgMZqiCmz/iKFzsrdhjE0KvBjptnYGEWk5 MMh5xlpzGom3LV/A+KAmEdPw+GCaj5H6qG3/PtWXz+RmjG0sRPycHaNJCWuLz4xM xV28oAG53Gqc3cDes4Hpds4fPOa8+we7yKTK/2O3lfOUOvKncsoS3vHC/GNfGD86 RX/vz2TW4GMaLmn75xcAYT0MINIFBf/tXjN1BNrmvrGkkxnbiQEcBBABCgAGBQJV rQlbAAoJEDNC4bZno4hjKL8H/An2CRzW8IsEjFKD+J+xa5hJYQbcb5W5wjGSs9PL /pRbH0t8FNS1DevRqoq3xdL5EEUpUgae54gix0An0qKhzC4MRdD9sYFy42mDP7f6 8Vw2sCZltfBtOHaha7Qj2U28DE9j7Dx04lkHWjdHudJV5PVaPpelW8EDIOMx+4nG WnXiYEKKMRWpR2BVV1FXnsfbfP2HWpxVaxxWt7WqOmswU0lJCb2bSLteEn8YoA1i CMLMdMaVXyX92v8Quh2N0NWtzXgc94ug8GiucGKoo2SpdFlXVCysqlPfKBestJlL 93dqP6dOwqoHqOscTJB6rvNzi2tmtAu7WDy4C+BBXNhbYpGJAhwEEAECAAYFAlWs +ygACgkQljt4MQo3sXysaw/+J6Ztawe/qT5aLW6it+zLq+3oD21UgM1TVP81CjwL hlHj9wuuGDe+xE8dZA7kvpngKjAxxXPQX/B4rz27Y+kHCvelOSrLW5kodTsPWIkL cSYMRo4Pws0RIGQBXI8tDIaJJcj7BYb9O7OjCziTEjP5KxDeZ6o4n0NFnZk5NNhS 6B1VnC3Y34DIj4koxm1N5O5br4z8kTc5PN9bMxOZn2u+KxGIeEwZJbHvtrgeAxUP 96B2dUo+jgSuro5jSkIyD+wpfo5o6+/kCtDiXEWo//AHJAwOal02QAodUtrMggwz J19FfnU8RgiKFjivrbfZi6ITM6RHg+DSF+KnaW2wkc3mGTB0qJsgSLGwOgfv37Qx O1tTdPxbSfWnZJAspylC74dgh+XOYYDji9tjPtrKZ8sEaHiUVFlO4QTOTlB9yYwO E7uI/3MKe3Q+0M2a85gvX+S0CdznpXo71aMFj0Hd/7ZMuKNausJZhagHAILbve1M IATkkfbCTxg5bdYgvdVGAIgUEAAO8mvLl1EvOJgkME5a/I/mK6MLxByuCMaT0RMr U9S881f+AJuJ3Qxbbo8vN0Iy9KmiCIptcSMKBKLHeMonYaXM8O392/XUKbgSBXkL oTOybMT+LZhO0upOhpRJqmtyDT1Wjxp7FBku/sUjJXCVy7YpjwkkLxZmvWIhleb7 S8uJAhwEEAECAAYFAlWs/LgACgkQEstOl+B+Z9HYNA//UKMSIfS0bdY6K+zhxuMS lIyol8Z/ynkDZSZ8SOeXZViLyRCRoXhY2g6JsygWLsZpthI8fnleQhwy1GLCxWMF n/PiRjj++VHoJYK/ANP23bC+tyl+jT9gwoPF0eGdWnnot1jGO6f6jFqam0KAL/XN 6ePUrNo0jbrYVrEUer20PYsM3tqGlGgOOFikMoYWwsAVOEh2I5Sgi6iAYfx12RYW eKw37loDwSr2FNZ5zjxdIyUQnKN1YMd0/Rfi2d86OVD7dV2qa94TFUvYmicpdcOM 9pogKVGmbhz7lirjuAidRhdZkuU+rxvIAd07Oc3bQRdsUCJAs/kjO71v9ov/NqKu j/BLixxIa0D0eKE41yL13RCfZIG46nI/F5PvLXhDp7sIeohIWsvYv239A9yXfq6B TeXZ1j8YTlY86yN38JStf8pbGWKlGARM7e1o9DHYY3irLCOWCAnKmF14wbbTMOAe w2VzxV8895Bweeo2fyCOGFI6SzvOSaOQPUlfmiKmtJrwreg71Vsv64X8X6FHajZY V9dYJFS2gO8cYJ/zajzn/oeYVTtpsFpJmq7fWByjGd7pAnZHuuSEy/57GEptmYRu zmI2gn7vYz1rZAbLThFsk/auCU3VYke8Dd3jHnxBuq2+Pa8TmLxibvnE1ZKd0gqZ dMNY/rT4+LZI+xDczzF3Z7mJAhwEEAECAAYFAlWtLOIACgkQirEyljoGU3rjMhAA ijskigHf8Q3D3B4Oz673cLNOGfAyEdHWNqlJW0Vcdo05iF8q8utwqmziRWw4PbpO cdPpUqLb61rWfjSkq4PVTOr8leHHNj/a4aiAYt8DtnpcwJqTmktiijo0Ptn0v8ao fdRJSVLtPcV0FydLzK6oLovszdWAQ4iVdFjppvdDJtjT4ooXFmZgZg6KzqjEGm8G 4wS4tMlFR4AJZIpWN5gAeLZhCg3jfuKWEgAIVwJZfVPp8qFTIMDCbHGcmszqeDKj G5hY8q+KeQBs7/jjibY7QjSk+qFvWPlES2NGCnjrD5NL+T5W0AlQZS3kgbDWbnSm r/xr6OzL8+bi03J3gRW/oWmCIlzvxUJuLgR5M3TRS4GqYfNVs4etgIW7QZXwTo/5 W8zd5P8UcKOuEFPtmfRjoRZYY30TqrmO9BQkHLKcDbqgnWcm55HaRdkK6+j4tKik f12/VXez1tP4CkHcMJWE4g3poANtZmHia2MPO9/+1P/pCxUb5jwBF+CDiDhDel1Y 8b7u/ERIugpl8TqGJx+GkUlw0cotZ7BoweNwLXwDDDQlIoA4BT+LFLGQBtUQKMQY TrDv4PUucMfB96yiEwlw40IdkmHgcBxXFNNxDHMsxEIW2TYoITfmkShiIm7XkcSE oilPpHFmh6JXpnqOsBhfO0FxKSWkNjsCKCMUGLww5kKJAhwEEAEIAAYFAlWs//EA CgkQP/MbrxBL+eLdOg//Z9Tcp9kElDdZl3e6aJqGpGviNqIA20KbvYrham5Kn3B9 1LhvMkypT6fZWAwbNCBHxvOSbOolcSSLpbaHK3A5jsg5MhLJ2G3Xpf7Z91+Mqg/H iOiJkaAhPoJ0Ny6BCB7jg3yaKLDP4wBwDbOH7JWuP7uQmQ12mqu6WFxok7e53bH5 i4gmu3QIO21RXyWoLJy/1Y5X3ljPZ1tNawy/Sz8UjeLau2Sl1mQ6JxWWCeLp7Cvw p+j6nKOFm/hVDlgnFrfIp9aYHjR2fVpwIFxvfff94gm20EywerlcGOAMeT+1QKZy 1V1ekBVX+2zdQ8RPJGZPqXyxnLg9SyUhdLJBPNDNe5ALfolfn2pvBGM3hnRunGOs PrK53WjGqvXXYhyIkJEd+UoyQBp6zUY/KKFK/7yjgZxX7sCSwNjDlFT2fB1gfll1 vKoYocPQl2t/B3beKOZJzBkSMk1hBdE0A7URkOoYrFQTdzsSUVwY+/0IAhvxqGKc HhinLDFON6ee082511VVMrSbCxcnsThjc61CMYA1TxL01Jzb3QIoTWT3W1t2HRZD /aXcDsg6UMHm1xC1MdZKeKpdJWrnnseC9b/tGuqw2EHitYDquVBmPkx0UoAdsbB5 ec3q8n4J45VJFJcSrrps/vRSNn0bUqcZlpZSZERdqBTBkbizxgFnvJx734JLhlaJ AhwEEAEIAAYFAlWtG6MACgkQlWNH9vvzpBVikRAAmfUzps72Opq31lRHZXXGD4/H FP9SyYRnWzaOWGDMfgO9p3IcRl3qRwOuThCvn+qxTHmRT8KUD8uko9zIU+ttx/zx An3hvO1nCzsiW33N4vU+Y78Uvs7Rumm2CNif+dKDL41FnVpA191b3T3NGWfigvqB 78fWv/WJIuPJuAhCoJYFbK0Vv2/QF2UAo9O2wdBo0ELZKmP5tWfJuLbc8XzuzgaP 4xzRdgJ+P+IFA4q1zQ49FHQeRWBSWkxFAp3iI9sdH5Na+Lup2vLSDYYmdDOyII5w 5QQ+Y8M78Bvt5GBOk52KfTH3oNjDwtd7ae46yWrSy7razs75klSxi125IfcPr/r8 e6jt08WVDZRak5mLPryNlf/Y+ymFe07aIp3eiKO1/SJp2K73fCTslXDt/OuzKZSp 656hybxUrRPiXBxHMOWkcPllZqBXf6GxnN+Fdyutk/e+0EBjpK02AxHY3igA3411 2ZGTGXNCL8ywTidVweOfjyqiWAnCSUvF6+efjRgg2mlD1g6ZDRiKpl9p/ZGETjCh urlpGSKhtCZWZIGt0x0iSLy4surqDrwwuBqEPSZ08KRr+q9R8HIPuAwjq2CjqDyj DFNuLx8dhbUUVIAl7a9nJotsph5VK7c/BF0uLW5YnPJYsXG7z1KixL2ydoH1kL41 zXdcIWBP8H7yPVgUxCKJAhwEEAEIAAYFAlWtG98ACgkQvBcwG0kbPyEIVxAA4imw p7Df/j5ZZcZ+kkBwAhFO+WnJMfkNNl4g/7vsFKbWFBpiYuGmlvX+poM3nTsWCuEv v3QohbZHGJS/hY2kdAuxurTI6w4FvvJ0Akz1DUANIF9gfJ9Omu2Znb9xG1fzyCSc EzUgaf3aim7zyp0arjjqR/msmd2sCjqvy5VgRK21tYAfhWmzdJQntIlCEExfTh9x guELDLSK3j7ngZla1T3BwE1dlcPVD6l9bl/7ZV5uXmotOqFU+1dBcFG4NKNXmnG5 TV7x3Ih6Xt982SCpBgVsEow1XFPf0jflPBn6DGJsgpmuIjdymgpJacwZCYkGbTSj wAeSibYvCw1MRYtrCXd7KlmmQxhYTvvzyoQSqaiIQM8daaXddcy4IdHoOoEJVzfA /BCyEkb0KhhjTWXQoRBXcxhJYOUjH5nhHd+zml+MHHiy1dL+xANHaBzFaNHpxYUs FN2MLcMW4rpCnOx/8pRu/o757Y2Ps+ypLUbGPxZJJa26zYXXTAUDDEgEFFM9Rifu jVCps146sRbrodzgIajc4ScgAWVkHDTKYfq6IBLJZHp8KB1fYFkVrUtwjMmyZCpG 7FqWITGTWOoRbYAsInWuzT7PN+vb/sk0xOk1PzSJV1CmCH9izKrTqRAU42jd4yqV IuQ3hN8wXoeolSlK3wl27fDtK2EDzVhklvjGdreJAhwEEAEIAAYFAlbwOBsACgkQ RPRuFG0COV30vQ//Vzyu44NJZrDWdrAyMngMOZ+qIUkeRdtKHEzAFXl6je1ZLyXT aSKhyWtdxD+NPA4E8vQbEqbcpvzkBhOgfNgVOxWUxC+njB5xhg4PuZLcffm+98S3 ncyu+bYuhA/kLgOJA2HL1vIQEobdM0XJhVM8G7bhKKSdS5NUd6BS8AgKL5YXbguO ZwDVq0yuVPg9VNqG5eTwL8fvZhH4L6I5Rh/wv1g++FvnEGRR+7ePprkc2pnJC8j3 7Z08YzRf5aWCJu89EDsL8wWI/jydPcGLnitNEROfovRX/A647VUl7M4kL0oyblJb 9JFbzPK97YeMwQTUYQOHIp8KsYYKjuBvq9q/Rr9DNpyijp1pshfjEiEZ4YDjTkGX uWu5EMSlVpC4nEtiBlKT3kMk1mqmc2F7A/g5ug1w+e72E1EbVJMDtAgzjc0+V4kt RxtTGa8PlfyWouBwL6ReVpEyVz3NS7++QcSY98DgMODMxFggna/zf3bef/lC6RGk kHyIOC+IhI+q72m0MjdCmzsSA8fqT0PNYs349+sCKw6ocgjSHZlR/8gEZbZC+Fwx Jf6be2N7eo6hYctOe5XpLaMApVnD3qtw6C9CxWJ4zT6WLyI0SAF3YWmIgLtlYhfF nRs0ObRXiO7tz0FBuTXD3vljjzq7t8DDK1IS4Cx5AnTZI4rz+/aiD0k5AhmJAhwE EAEIAAYFAlbwOPIACgkQt4bvJaijiaC0TBAAppcnj7MhOQh+yQCzljw403/hEW5/ iVEyhfkEtF8lnJQPwSCvKphln4B9/E/Z6HBZ5MNew9xj/JrL/JZfk+E81vSs/fhg lCXB83bFo/fZ6cnqhubcPlXyXLSAY7J195n+DdInbza5ABuaJW6UeVHbGGM+th7L S6sYmzoOM1oU8mLzugo57M2a0SZNE2GTjeHFzdeFmKtjk6zGhJcdDMvKNalQZyuf KSEc7+9j5r0KlJOWY4VMqfYMY6qgiQ89IVSutWbhj+oiivCgi030sXmrdOSwG8/G gufKpYOQ1ZLXrxzowYJ02vAewYCe20PTyzGt5ReB9XkokffvHnKcxHxhyC6HiAyG B+8+yf0tJk4Fd7uW6zjGDvphPQhH6bPObVVaMiayEfJhhHbRNmJnUKXRc2CGL0X6 vbZ12Y1bAALAttEpsNC544WMwLfUCcGfaRTF1E4OpQucU/uizaxGPiUd8Ateqt+m 3GwjY9HAb9QN8ejiOTkH6XsYSzw4KA4iPqqMySHY/DMyfFuilNWd8m93agApO+8r 9+6xjurnbkh50rYtunP3FCMul2QW1wXaGxPTt7a/IcL00NRVwZmJwa3Ys1OrYMRA OXM0QvRzpHZOsuqHG45jjaRejMZKSQL0zJOyKgtv4YrG1fceLrZWvu7ZjWVNd+0B nGitgBkGm5VQMuGJAhwEEAEIAAYFAlbwjIoACgkQpIWg7VG4t8QFOw//YFD2UifK W2VfUy2ig+ewXOwe/BzVfweN/Im+HSN94ooTEwR5wgdYIjxPV+eEKFfAEsazv8b3 ktZJI+/IxEalHBA+mR4TC2/UlrOgsVCnTHYKL5yJRVHPrdOQ+Zm+kk4vszYocDtC SPp+/aoRE8u91i6Qu0UdGjMe82HG6qdzVj6bXH9ZFRiWRsfkGxB31cnvfE+aZB+V qfuy0pbqegJXUE/6In8XRsS12xAk58KM0b8jKQGqYaBB6xE9WDpip5sPycougy6U 29170n+U57c6+x5JQhHC/Rb2AqB8Yl1msC4bj4UsqxWHmLRdcqZs04GiVsrk2fLD fSfsu023IZPyOhaV/t2KE4DwnAu4b9Sq7PNNzf9yrsgRL4c4OzWEYpMzt38V5QRt ETJvuuthOypREVNuIs21oRomMJd+PjGsayDuKA7xe/SxDe8tPkoy+FdAfevPXfhy NWX0vTtcZDpVustEMmoDs7EzlBddrNplsnRZoqW2JyMLErLujc5N8juDPqmAASVy d7SBUD03e8apjzZSfJhbZsxw4W9z7+rETRSy7o2DPXCabjTGwB1naIc9W4wU/aWU N81qZZecKLVLxpiXeoUwF3VIJme5Ye1KumsQpTJoi3tVmJ7XDaW9OD8shJtvhlOc ddt1E4kl9iximuLfhzUjPJyS/ASYhpPNMVSJAhwEEAEKAAYFAlWtDgMACgkQw701 5G3UXaVUfg/+P9+3vFqijhzT7XkLuNrI9GTn3KslTAPU0Oe/BdLPTMKELqn1YVxk lnrznLbjL9qkwYwXxY5HT6ykeS+CzQIDLLtXqR1NAz3EWVAm4dT+xqaJZmfCoJ40 +VqZdQHLjgmj9PFTK7f3vyZ3Ux6em7Z+h7C1ba8jYZS+6GnmGw6+v6LxzRh1SFUm YBj/X+GPBYg6cnymr+9b2CwTMbczO5XN3hU9UtdF4UlupPvEuV5XWFpCw64kVwxP OQvvUJ3aTqEGiCAqd8ntyVZ1MWtaob7GI/bj7dTOoSogUqF3aZawfoUHPp6izTd4 8aRnZhpsK47Y6jIaHDCILhKoAESTnpN1yjqaRIbviHJyYFOHnQESTS7AWrolQVmP +pmThZWauh+PLVcs4ktp/6CKYvmgnP30HhrPczE7RVKIT32LU3MvT3nFzDmKUruK eLUNO6LnJ8XwZEVIE3TOVcF+2ME3EcKfV4RwAlBBgYa8DB/CM/rCtoyxdxYSRpHn 9bxbNL6kn+CPAwRZGAChfOPGMhHBh3iDUJaIt79Cq9j6QcZUYfhj1sIvvkDyl0Bc 5U4slbTM6KP5aZgFlCcI9HWwGx/5qIbb1rQNVjxwtiUWediS04YaQ6yt7f/yXbdl hxPdXDMe/9gdDyuDvP4+1FZbDiV6VT7Bl+UhQnkwf4kuCbSMFjdu+cyJAjMEEAEI AB0WIQRZyp4tKjMd4lGqJCdfA8dnwkek1QUCWQ72QgAKCRBfA8dnwkek1aBpEACI 6mkO7aXYQyejkTbSyLdE7FoNI4Nq6aKvvQLt+vlGATLgSdz8v7QLGd3KkJYoO5SY kKjrkGZG4Nb3GOCnWnewBmvCqt7C5/Idl1JTVPdF9CgMHQkwP2F8Tg5X1Ag9oZeL yRKB/xWbX1LGizRy5s9G6yhq1rwoatNI+Wz36fdCmCqmphm92uPyxuAxy+JZhAbT /vmANGKlEN5Wjryrp3tmMEhnuJykWq2ZxYiJ9jpx/cNLyjf8fSDBhLXOTG0FYBrZ k+ZJtw1LlzA36K7IbnunO2qOJzDgvemo5FmGYcm6hyYCzqxBj1VJDmhHu7NZMeMn vT4d8Py1xBPGPFRYmaK5AP/D07cdDPYawlZA6dMPGE8xSfQxbrayJrj0+vpjSJPt DUHrg7L+PdpvyVxi8Py0Zfe05h6SjBPrw3eTQS6ODkoZQyh8D7M2HKUiUxvfufvn LEfeWpd7Vp7hl/VdP3TtbOzL9H/89O5ywf7S/oRKaqgOWkYhs3cfyjqz2boQk8nw N29sLzm5cH+APxNcju7sz07klp8dRNeImbmgj8mT1xId10mAixJ0NOY8udLhlwg1 UfsYhP+Yvy9yMcoSZOs5+RjluW/E2qubP3RUt81ohUupdM0NVUJiR/I3Ri6ARb3V S2aAGtW4oS6PpyVT0dkWrlp8VqFpNTUKE95dNi5Og7kCDQRgos3VARAAtSRABroy kqOO+3Zq3pehRGM2aft2djiigKhhVg+eJr+YffIU2Q73l9zniYSzVMkFVuJPd7Wk BnlEMIn8BUGh04op6MV+kzX0guu3v/9i/0agNS31xAdXzmf1i5sbQU1eRylyZRSi sM2iuF7BYrfSsOBHv71cf+iM94KxrzXiB1bDNL4DN0T5+vCoDjgHaXbten4Qdm6O djBCUv9Ix8dhT4OzHwHOUK7gomTrQM6Hyb0vgQsDXKV2Ps/pWOSk/J2cCrQUrafF qkVAAC3m6kaGU8te6YlAU7GFcf4MOPw15WTM2iaKWwPkwK9b/Ro/5RfZbqnde8EB AoFkg0X8mshGVDBtYCaW+1qUA3ZBcQzUvosYUsNQC9Nx8Y9/tkqCwIBUzsxuIrSY HxeqPThxSMvCmg2qHXmmbAxsbOz3DTOwKpWSRGOCTGFpsLBqWigjG+L+9iIx+7kr 2gH8tYck1RPyQm04k9udD8wwXCvylTUzNVd876sN3o1xySaO5nz8JtM//xPPctFF MZmC01bBn+jRuapDqY+qTFL+eKherOUZgs3nHt7cEBz3m8neGg0/JhyBwS6sQF7h 0ETBapVDlKCRuvAgJHIrjejL5v+kVRrH9L6ey5CAdRG9SbffsNwZoo5o8SrdGcX6 hpFiqg1jZWvZv5x7/PPSW7fPuNNHsoxVRn8AEQEAAYkEcgQYAQoAJhYhBBTyZoLQ kWzdgeN7bWG3tSbZjwNTBQJgos3VAhsCBQkDwmcAAkAJEGG3tSbZjwNTwXQgBBkB CgAdFiEEQ2D+IQnEl2MYb44h6+QekPbxL20FAmCizdUACgkQ6+QekPbxL22N6w/+ ObmFWpCr0dmV1tm+1tuCL05sJ031KFl3EkH389FmrMMoVk49e7H5Urn77ezQXO9M e8R0nZgVUavJdKcJzgf1IZtLq5Vq5q563I8gglr8rJaaefGYuv9jitx/Ca2s+uvJ MUHgMeBPmFFOKoIF8QgOJdkSht2lIkd6bd89ayLLoIXlGi8d6K4tEWeMigtds9FY cyX7o8xXmt9XqCIaMbkJtiUzjz63dN0O81UCj0TvK17KXAvclhzrriZuo2rOeDTB cQmKKy2UKZaJjUqiezuOg1t513ZIzhy1oXzg5CJb5jgsmZmjtJjr161fv5d8Yock j73z2/z47wry6ThESfYSkIxJIiIP5SwZyNMeeHSZUnaMTqzd5kDL5qnNrhJHCBBy xcIBcGppv3VjZ1QNU1k0Tx+MzpfZtbE//idw+Q7Iz9T/3zjN79JhYi1tzzaaQR6J oEiNMpHHkdkOGRwfdipM7oKl7HKl+zJCzaLTE4mbInCxSgn+1RhI+rGzTXVxqIKo nYrWra4EVBAgguMrxNMjuEtbsF54Q27x2+H/Mew+et6K/suqyh63Szfd14LWEj4N aR89tEz76nJyJFuFtDeGSmu68/Pi5S8Ls9MxKJJiIJmc3lQqDUTHEiLc7RtZAsgA WlLc6UnFsaCqXKJxuaMs7qFD7pqSGfHxYboBxax7Sqrttw//eC7rghiFzfcnEZQn 6+GPW3FJc5P1diSLto99six3uaWKjvSnZScvPOe8ogJt1JQpQAABoHfd7HzzlGzJ tU/yDL931WD6nETp6b/dk7t3aUpk8WFMG19L+L9QbEpjxDi2wozO7CGg6FhC7mu+ KsSsorLqd3QYKoBLG0Pb2K3Zz3PN7y17kf1Aixa2//prFNfpEGwP9flz2TUvSdtd 9JvcnDz+/3yB63tmuCsUPZaR3lhTkNiXZG7WTALA1AqIUKFpxI+cOQxaO2+H6XXi ON3x8A2Pzd1mZyuUMPk2c6I/c1ZfzJXxF/WJVfuztZXNCGocYF4kB3X07uOuiKrI DMXDT3Op3wJ0RInpjyyPlwwov3zIVQcG3mfWPclXNcIRSAdadLq6yhTBUVbhMd2j 2qga1vtaVlH/m0zFhib88RLf1/FiVX76D1q+anG+gT+SsMPd7hSGQQ2+6ngBAvx4 T1IHtFgPqfNaA49m8b3aAorGo6Bbzmwh4Xr+7DM2fSskBskGdIPZgA4Vyu4/PC5a CTyd0NqlBgj/g7XRQMGvFRkdnEIcVZbvxdzn4j16dS+43dUzFMLKThRbkUaunaYo ZPIYuiqbwCoFX7vJdgBMaTxYfkClc5LJSVr+X+9RYNwlOn4kiQzKstVtl/qfpDow 6QsGmA9J7v8Vt9JEg052REcZZmC5Ag0EValA9AEQAK/z677fpoVUj4zQz0g60wVW f+1y2lGb8iFYICmvrJyaEra5SRkyihYA1WmEzhN4T//tHw3UIfe646+GkY3eIQW2 jY9DM2XaElmMN8k/v54nbn5oD7rNEyCTFTvCOq5d74HH1vw96Lzay1vy45E7jPWv qfg9Se8KAnzElohTJjizyhU+0QbmPHnQlY8gOkT/SvRo9bFEUnqjWh0fRq+K1tdL PhcFB1scc25iFqh9IAKUGDur8jQ+SDHCjgQlkFOg3rbqtaUOnVHPohfrBM90ZNwu neFgQY7ZFSUidCimp/EN4CXnzgjDYXUUA42S8G86+G4KAJC22gRQo4mcVmehwHTH 0glfLmUK7TEu29A1KWNL3R/R7ZdyajjpCvUaK2A0Abj3ZE2BSDbJrVlbBVfy5kfP dZjhd3wUWqFaDHiVcImcjZRWPncllhcy6fhqEy3ELZrkezpJjnARsVkij3GXz6oX +HVULne2w0dkTXydR6muZI/GeNtrLHmA8B3/0/TllmLy8ChmYZVIKZ8zt1ghq3f+ hFTXgtZil7eBewZgA6L+EXXK6dZj14lbe6CMS2kungTX9stU1s42I+WRbiqiLpAx CX6qcLBOWrJwsOep2nvu5bhrPHptSfRhF4Vs1xteVFckCWhcLgdYi/Je1XBEM+AA Va0k1FiywCg7MqlG6toLABEBAAGJBEQEGAECAA8FAlWpQPQCGwIFCQPCZwACKQkQ Ybe1JtmPA1PBXSAEGQECAAYFAlWpQPQACgkQHGnE5V6ZBdsvxQ/6A62ZteN0b/TV fSJ51SdG66amwe2rpRX4UdSw7ifxo3qhgEICQmXR5c09qXwl17MFJWM3FhGrbxnA 5KGgeWGtqrPup4QZPKU+l2Ea2QLSJSiBq5QqqEgZvR14Lhr/hCGhBAq9s/xbp8fb KNJj/uWiZ+uTPbt5T5rgKJ4+g3B6DNO1rH7F70OLrd32mxZs4pSxngHRAyiMPB59 yQVDsVMha0JTqC+P96itUzvnInc/9mwE0EMiBtpDTkoBwbJVPnuv+7FjkOLn5s5u 3RLH9fe8z1xnV0fPC0/ndrlNiuBpAn3zVCsWasvW18Vz8K+CQY8Sw0Jw75edBgFo z2QMFxHfDpMJefvMadB7mdte1lKk/Im9KFFH8Idh9b6zD0a/+Ooujukx6QpFfAVh e2sT2CIm2nmMAuAZI2cCt7SC+REn9n9MSuIWxN8YTE3qgAUB6F3ea0O0hGlLl+z5 UOfX0bNAs+ebx/P6PczJtDzeqpmRb0QXqo55JWXLvmXT/fgjF7fNTTLsyCtV+xH6 ZFKGpvGJGJMHApEbz2a0hy12RZH58eI1ueN3Tzn8nI57+oYSsqFw/QgcdGXDonLG JsPVzIpQRg92/GXSukWF+MsCjVOilHRSY1wfPPmJ7+kMQ4rdXpjAhwNYJc1ff5N+ omCxCKoFgYsCXlFCHFKs4JwRbTdd3MkuqBAAlBlIjym8NyJIBltfWckuhQTX4BiB ltGPNga9CpQsml519EePuLtoe5H0fTUp4UYbL0ZzyJImQE2uw/hMNZ36bA057YtH OoP4FcPUwv6wsl5JC87UR1XFhAXb5xSU0qdi3hWh0hm772X6CBlM8lM6GtT/fDZk SGNXMQaIs1X/O9vf8wGg+HwLJcaCvybI4w7w1K0R7WjWZlJXutCZf8hRc0d88W/q SZYooKD9q2S7foqaJhySIaF11sH5ETvVP3oCfGVIVhKWb0Tp2jXPXlXLeRAQA8S+ 4B1o5XHiM+J3SNXhPQHRGQ3VGcDn45itg3F4xQX2Qvo4SV42NMYd6TykM/dIfQyJ DOVg3CT3+nqfjCknf94SNvyZprHEPmpcDeseoPMw8kjKNwDwPXFLxBRntPgnqVXD cNN41OH2kqx4jF7FLlRmwNpB2mFVH8xeVuRm7h2WZRsaEoqvivhzRtESVA2um5Eg 763CVTcNYlK6MD/iy8JzbMuZBrlOHr58HKDdcOy1W0z2quESGoqrwA995IgPav/1 DSpyuJPNc/oUTWlhpYshqYKoflezAyKj30+UzC3R/mY03ri6zUvCgXHNgZlKUsM3 VEXk6h5oDuaXniHLLzuxjTBVrILnGYgHSFRP80L/knz+o4Uvq4wj7NHnruc5fP1f oFxRNsMt40yRJfW5Ag0EWUvZtQEQAL4dTYeBoI6UxWcu7kERc+Tz13WUwSPmOIU6 RdoXqBc2QyOki8s+uDqIJbpt2YJUPWnPgoU0rDt+msOG9tpAjPVg5pHJe8H9tXxv aPICQ1YxYw1m8E1kRGio4EurP2G/H/YI3vwRskqI8cp04t88k1DfeKvXYVY34kO/ VM12XTfRcsiMdmDubTqNPYU1kmYNeqMT+OzI9QE2kulCK0DHDJzqdJLnOkrn1z0l rFAPoNpVtHZh4D7yB8FH3I1qk9npRdNXvSjhXu4ptvRuszktjEcfHK+ikYP3jVqR 4eWiOKrkVIWJOCsOKIUE27PXndGLbUuDzCvrKusR6W9vF+mYK1p3pT2PYX8HEeJu zrd1UFBvCWPf2k5RQqHk4JIaKfjAlCPnSXmPHXqSGtD083RJhFkbz4U07/glHWer +M+Sw+hYT/v+XOhQm3CG/PUaeX2ud6GFefymX/tA1FYJqVxVOye2axoA3lO7yM5s K/JHMdL7bFZtXVcGCwAqU2mkD2yEkFAzPLBHKigKg+4VimsTbG9jPOS+qtv65x6u IOOsic3Ud2/BB/lfbvplIvQyJYw8HKb8O0XkUPcD3Q1i8p54JSHhiJm42H699uMm iJeLzTkQJG7KApEv6nOb+jLyr2DZXuX82/UvZAmzWZg/XOf2xz44/RDXkL865dqR YenXNaOXABEBAAGJBHIEGAEIACYWIQQU8maC0JFs3YHje21ht7Um2Y8DUwUCWUvZ tQIbAgUJA8JnAAJACRBht7Um2Y8DU8F0IAQZAQgAHRYhBNzqxdlhNbkcTqZyq7u+ vbskxvNVBQJZS9m1AAoJELu+vbskxvNVBVMP/21uU+8NpPLpBn6SHJtIAffFYMSn p0gplOjfiItA8HDbc1vqZlVpdk2xyFw6b7g+vTg1gQzF7uoAZK1czRLCt7ocxntL VgPuSO1ZHt4hJG5Ze1UUJSDq8Pp+TTL43rg6irDLdYDBBHYESnXWAKRAIuPb1e15 6pAdpSynwJ3+qPyqj5vDLkPrtMWGp7qWQpXcHaXMea8m4+/RLNIjvRof/t6jrUer mzs91Z+/C3N8ugD/aZrXTiNkF/H6BiuITZoB0j+rjy4fxEQvTYq9C3NoaBIRxJEP ApxGnHKe9K9N1ZBELjCUCT1MkbBmf4CJtEgJvSScVh1yZNv+TVDfN6RwF9CwOM8b VrOH1VuX/L/XiIRRT02eGrvv3EvQ+BhceJpWN+GsHKQM658trZ7RhHo2PR0ib+D7 hWQprcktqutTfRFPMrgcFTPXKeR57cxvjk+B2LoLSOom3oTNEtUaMuBE8E/jbONX 34QsHWDKfLc3XpLEN+bO65AfTiR4/qtnZBmldBUG9xbrW0qcWz+M5P3S6ssbor3V DxxrX+Fv6pJccwlgYNFQxQOz8GrZhF0cU48e+0XpU2NFeyueHQ8lb9yYdvhc7mkG c87iIb+ILah57Wqi52Jd4f0DS2zkxN6ab5/UVEkffNwXfjN0IW28Ga4BtZvoXVGV Jo4vsGytMFdMRzRB/uAQAI21c3TTrO4TL42NcFQ0RY7yAlaKzXTXVNxC8v/QQKIs DrNvs4w15rF/t2LXc8Cr3aUNuDtE7x+FaNwZLypCe+RFOy66AG2ENuNt5tTGN3mg bJZl+01Cd1xPpOzmRfAJnH7YD+J4QuCEEgraAXPfp3MhjeHWtQaWDu29fbTtPx0k /Bh0qxHFPWxhnYpktnjZEoMmwPMBeitCvcr66UzUmezgVZc0HxJ/LO9Bss7P3egv 60wPnXn579wDGnIriDUhHRcn2KuMI7eT4pL4HHjAAJB/8+vcUzYPuqtxULf5ciu8 V+ajzHtqBcgwNR/gm/7i+4qKPo14fYBftH5PDj9iD88WIQX7paVbYHJZjrmnpM2i niL/DRVuxqAPToIc4hMXj8YPeTqS/1ckOzyYgFI9aRaLxZOR0uno1WTRBifwOcy3 NTwSHK/6YbtJbqoVwISJrGUuvOfBlkJZVlCzVsPG1+QZaPAL3HxVXavYgCu2hze4 OOWUe2Xuqihw8hb+F1rhP64/QtpjPxgLLb1NIBpm6OgdZjRjCbl9xnd3RvH6hYxO +zgdn3icn2fFHhdZ7xtYcZZrg9QOXuv6LDvVe5I4VyszNs0jtdcx0P+T5VIrKFAY yf0CCuL/UQTRrW0SrKOV/RZHuvdpVYK3YIAyd49kKjLk6O9awFQy7cXq3PhjatBi uQINBFzwOeoBEACt8eaLW7jX3n5tQQ+ICeGOBIVbzAnXlH9bjdTqollM+iiwkdlB NNEGku7+uQ9dTofem6cbSUXuh5kJNLy5tUIG4oGZLvpAjLdHP8zslgTglQymoWSb v2ss4pq8xoDbp6E51dkowkyFSuELZKMFHgPiJbfYXxQmbwEiFhGs4+21lwtI4tVO 9zs1XbzJD9XtomxkcYaePeBxpI9JnrWIUKt70JPZi/QcxPMG2si/YitnCVamcVw8 Wri+W7MAJW3SyNjJUqx/cIOib8vdZVxvdWRIZmdkWkFO6vv4IotEBCflt6cD0EIy 3Ijn3nDDf59v7wpdWXidjzVjKF0F8jUiX6S/ZuEz4lvdotpCgJGhDmdi4pVCYbmS hKbffgcSJ/BWn4wCOHKPA+XB75zzPj17dcWR8D9GM/sgusJy2fbHDcOdADPynKW3 Ok1CENJDx7DTDwm2fPRMut4utSL1FMSl7zBDRabcPr1nw+zERjmSjm3R91ayrQ9U KlP/4P8Xkhjc3FFWrRQ1Q7/SlkUmrTqSouQcOolGMa2ENNgqNeOY7oE5xnPs64TL AzQ9z66u0dHTMODAS1A6C0l66LrPVYGoQLDkM7WQn7zznFdnKR2nsPOUi0mMdyrG /62iARtNvuF4xdsUAoCKti3wOsXRuUhiXei4N4qdr8IaIEIFgYEKKtaqzwARAQAB iQRyBBgBCgAmFiEEFPJmgtCRbN2B43ttYbe1JtmPA1MFAlzwOeoCGwIFCQPCZwAC QAkQYbe1JtmPA1PBdCAEGQEKAB0WIQQJezEwd65ioC+E2k3xpmaPu31XLgUCXPA5 6gAKCRDxpmaPu31XLopQEACKv8mYt4aMc0oA25UJXMRig2lXJDqOZBUSvFFm8t6X gdG0zFdzFo4gqpje68kNyt9duhvOMsVwkzUr+5Di7FccvgwceU3X5ngWpnV/GcXg 79m5viipWUdBRoyZ90oi4D5K6fhlmszmWyiD7KDrjdtIdGnjAuprztkc/JBlIwlm u/40JyDR5Dfxp256DlzsJ/HH8LbdjJG/F0XvtZUwcHefa7mDXtIWszsMoJnEoLzO kZvJ13rhJcTHVQImClyS3o9+Pk6DTfy4Ad0w+9nF0rZp+8/GXZGilfn/NXMj0elY u5WiyCBqargRkrHpebNKW9jxRca02aDS2Yrf8dlseO1d9FXZPOBWIxDRG++TqRhB K8FUW00DikRDrrV5RsIiXtgtRqH+hwknE33i8m8/KKC5/pUl3Af5f+vMKsT3s1mM X2zA+NmLUxJCXLz70WqLoShI8QEj+RLk9yuk97bo7KoNSv6xNwXotJKzp08VAnVN X/QddmV6Z7SnocEs+S6Z0L69sEffMgUaCkH09mIt1yu0DaeOl7fM2iD3VcO6jJ94 Dg8olkhBgrZERe3sXR2fciFtsqHxYc9zP7YyL7vPbUQ8BogxEfIQZPGdpnG5pTM0 NSX/mgkOWI2VJFDe/rOFTdTk+8mKVnFdaUfHA48qIeS0V0zMLd4OZkrYlW3iKvZp s6IAEACauiivWdvKvJgKMyi3fvicXn4qL8nV1X6lmOBqDn4bb0N0mtpiqXfvG950 +29rcCJSj6qSMVj8ZHuwVktrEoWX6lpJbWwEdUh+35DnjfGOYN8gW8bx0CfyqEx5 0W++DK5Wj+L+DL7jgJ/l7dMKxLdjijkg+v4yI516nzRbrx3x77U8n+H1V9bHrDfS cESnr3PtWS4ze4yDrr9Xp+YK8A7RkIctH2ToyEixin8utvfa56dGpUai7gIRZ+0b tWY0FX6g/VRHwwhLIzTsaFveQGuzFbXaGkOhRASitKtbQo2fD39qAMixkKOctN9A /nA3dZU8BlJj7258+P36jQDOilr2Y7RlTSTZS5aXeAPbwILwKCNcDjV0keerGSqi V2zkiH0vAJcxVokn+iMj6VOaM1RyxskgFara0Vt3IuAjnirES/OVuIkhgpebmGXB PcHqLWpFDtEdLv6YtOwScE0eYb5/SA3XsmK3qgzEAzBfchwl4PqAhiQAf/tbx5Eg AUbFmwhEcgd9xMY5w6+8/5FjoXwHYmdfjKT9iD7QxF3LnymskoKQQGWBHiwJjaA8 LYPpopUg9we00zNdSGNXv1Lau9AM//ATiusH8iLJj33ofQh6FviQG6W3TlLPqx/o IxxNj5bPAQy6dRKB1TxlWr4X0pUWxuqBeObPoHS9j0ysxKPruw== =81zK -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

The post Updating GPG key for signing Firefox Releases appeared first on Mozilla Security Blog.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Hacks.Mozilla.Org: Looking fine with Firefox 89

di, 01/06/2021 - 17:19

While we’re sitting here feeling a bit frumpy after a year with reduced activity, Firefox 89 has smartened up and brings with it a slimmed down, slightly more minimalist interface.

Along with this new look, we get some great styling features including a force-colors feature for media queries and better control over how fonts are displayed. The long awaited top-level await keyword for JavaScript modules is now enabled, as well as the PerformanceEventTiming interface, which is another addition to the performance suite of APIs: 89 really has been working out!

This blog post provides merely a set of highlights; for all the details, check out the following:

forced-colors media feature

The forced-colors CSS media feature detects if a user agent restricts the color palette used on a web page. For instance Windows has a High Contrast mode. If it’s turned on, using forced-colors: active within a CSS media query would apply the styles nested inside.

In this example we have a .button class that declares a box-shadow property, giving any HTML element using that class a nice drop-shadow.

If forced-colors mode is active, this shadow would not be rendered, so instead we’re declaring a border to make up for the shadow loss:

.button { border: 0; padding: 10px; box-shadow: -2px -2px 5px gray, 2px 2px 5px gray; } @media (forced-colors: active) { .button { /* Use a border instead, since box-shadow is forced to 'none' in forced-colors mode */ border: 2px ButtonText solid; } } Better control for displayed fonts

Firefox 89 brings with it the line-gap-override, ascent-override and descent-override CSS properties. These allow developers more control over how fonts are displayed. The following snippet shows just how useful these properties are when using a local fallback font:

@font-face { font-family: web-font; src: url("<https://example.com/font.woff>"); } @font-face { font-family: local-font; src: local(Local Font); ascent-override: 90%; descent-override: 110%; line-gap-override: 120%; }

These new properties help to reduce layout shift when fonts are loading, as developers can better match the intricacies of a local font with a web font. They work alongside the size-adjust property which is currently behind a preference in Firefox 89.

Top-level await

If you’ve been writing JavaScript over the past few years you’ve more than likely become familiar with async functions. Now the await keyword, usually confined to use within an async function, has been given independence and allowed to go it alone. As long as it stays within modules that is.

In short, this means JavaScript modules that have child modules using top level await wait for that child to execute before they themselves run. All while not blocking other child modules from loading.

Here is a very small example of a module using the >a href=”https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/Fetch_API”>Fetch API and specifying await within the export statement. Any modules that include this will wait for the fetch to resolve before running any code.

// fetch request const colors = fetch('../data/colors.json') .then(response => response.json()); export default await colors; PerformanceEventTiming

A new look can’t go unnoticed without mentioning performance. There’s a plethora of Performance APIs, which give developers granular power over their own bespoke performance tests. The PerformanceEventTiming interface is now available in Firefox 89 and provides timing information for a whole array of events. It adds yet another extremely useful feature for developers by cleverly giving information about when a user-triggered event starts and when it ends. A very welcome addition to the new release.

The post Looking fine with Firefox 89 appeared first on Mozilla Hacks - the Web developer blog.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Henri Sivonen: Bogo-XML Declaration Returns to Gecko

di, 01/06/2021 - 16:02

Firefox 89 was released today. This release (again!) honors a character encoding declaration made via syntax that looks like an XML declaration used in text/html (if there are no other character encoding declarations).

Before HTML parsing was specified, Internet Explorer did not support declaring the encoding of a text/html document using the XML declaration syntax. However, Gecko, WebKit, and Presto did. Unfortunately, I didn’t realize that they did.

When Hixie specified HTML parsing, consistent with IE, he didn’t make the spec sensitive to the XML declaration syntax in a particular way. I am unable to locate any discussion in the WHATWG mailing list archives about whether an encoding declaration made using the XML declaration syntax in text/html should be honored when processing text/html.

When I implemented the specified HTML parsing algorithm in Gecko, I also implemented the internal encoding declaration handling per specification. As a side effect, in Firefox 4, I removed Gecko’s support for the XML declaration syntax for declaring the character encoding in text/html. I don’t recall this having been a knowingly-made decision: The rewrite just did strictly what the spec said.

When WebKit and Presto implemented the specified HTML parsing algorithm, they only implemented the tokenization and tree building parts and kept their old ways for handling character encoding declarations. That is, they continued to honor the XML declaration syntax for declaring the character encoding text/html. I don’t recall the developers of the either engine raising this as a spec issue back then.

The closest to the issue getting raised as a spec issue was for the wrong reason, which made people push back instead of fixing the spec.

When Blink forked, it inherited WebKit’s behavior. When Microsoft switched from EdgeHTML to Blink, Gecko became the only actively-developed major engine not to support the XML declaration syntax for declaring the character encoding text/html. Since unlabeled UTF-8 is not automatically detected, this became a Web compatibility issue with pages that declare UTF-8 but only using the XML declaration syntax (i.e. without a BOM, a meta, or HTTP-layer declaration as well).

And that’s why support for declaring the character encoding via the XML declaration syntax came to the HTML spec and back to Gecko.

What Can We learn?
  • When the majority of engines has a behavior, we should assume that content is authored with the expectation that that behavior exists, and we can’t rely on assuming that all content is tested with the engine that doesn’t have the behavior even if that engine has the majority market share.

    (In general, the HTML parsing algorithm upheld IE behaviors a bit too much. I regret that I didn’t push for non-IE behavior in tokenization when a less-than sign is encountered inside a tag token.)

  • Instead of just trusting the spec, also check with other engines do.

  • If you aren’t willing to implement what the spec says, you should raise the issue of the standardization forum.

  • If an issue is raised for a bad reason, pay attention to if there is an adjacent issue that needs fixing for a good reason.

  • “We comply with the spec” is unlikely to be a winning response to a long-standing Web compatibilty bug.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Mozilla Security Blog: Firefox 89 blocks cross-site cookie tracking by default in private browsing

di, 01/06/2021 - 14:55

At Mozilla, we believe that your right to privacy is fundamental. Unfortunately, for too long cookies have been used by tracking companies to gather data about you as you browse the web. Today, with the launch of Firefox 89, we are happy to announce that Firefox Private Browsing windows now include our innovative Total Cookie Protection by default. That means: when you open a Private Browsing window, each website you visit is given a separate cookie jar that keeps cookies confined to that site. Cookies can no longer be used to follow you from site to site and gather your browsing history.

What is Total Cookie Protection?

In February of this year we introduced Total Cookie Protection, a new, extra-strong protection against cross-site tracking cookies. Since Firefox 86, Total Cookie Protection has been available for users who have ETP Strict Mode enabled. Now, with Firefox 89, we are extending this same protection to Private Browsing windows.

To recap: a cookie is a small piece of data that websites can ask your browser to store on your computer. Traditionally, browsers have allowed websites to share cookies in what is effectively a single cookie jar. Firefox’s Total Cookie Protection is a sophisticated set of privacy improvements that enforce a simple, revolutionary principle: your browser should not allow the sharing of cookies between websites. This principle is now enforced in Firefox Private Browsing windows by creating a separate cookie jar for every website you visit, as illustrated here:

Previously, third-party cookies were shared between websites. Now, every website gets its own cookie jar so that cookies can’t be used to share data between them. (Illustration: Meghan Newell)

As we described in February, Total Cookie Protection covers not just cookies but a variety of browser technologies that previously were able to be used for cross-site tracking. To ensure a smooth browsing experience, Total Cookie Protection makes occasional exceptions to share cookies between websites when they are needed for cross-site logins or similar cross-site functionality.

Firefox Private Browsing Windows, now with even more privacy

With the addition of Total Cookie Protection, Firefox’s Private Browsing windows have the most advanced privacy protections of any major browser’s private browsing mode. The following protections are included in Private Browsing windows by default:

If you have Firefox installed, you don’t need to do anything special to benefit from this upgrade to Private Browsing windows. To open a Private Browsing window, click on the Application Menu button (☰) and choose “New Private Window”:

Screenshot of the application menu with New Private Window selected.Or, if you like keyboard shortcuts, just press Ctrl + Shift + P (Cmd + Shift + P on Mac). When you are done with that private browsing session, you can simply close all your Private Browsing windows. All the cookies and other stored data from the websites you visited will be immediately deleted!

As we continue to strengthen Firefox’s privacy protections, Mozilla is committed to maintaining state-of-the-art performance and a first-class browsing experience. Stay tuned for more privacy advances in the coming months!

Thank you

We are grateful to the many Mozillians who have contributed to or supported this new enhancement to Firefox, including Steven Englehardt, Andrea Marchesini, Tim Huang, Johann Hofmann, Gary Chen, Nihanth Subramanya, Paul Zühlcke, Tanvi Vyas, Anne van Kesteren, Ethan Tseng, Prangya Basu, Wennie Leung, Ehsan Akhgari, Dimi Lee, Selena Deckelmann, Mikal Lewis, Tom Ritter, Eric Rescorla, Olli Pettay, Philip Luk, Kim Moir, Gregory Mierzwinski, Doug Thayer, and Vicky Chin.

The post Firefox 89 blocks cross-site cookie tracking by default in private browsing appeared first on Mozilla Security Blog.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Karl Dubost: Get Ready For Three Digits User Agent Strings

ma, 31/05/2021 - 04:43

In 2022, Firefox and Chrome will reach a version number with three digits: 100. It's time to get ready and extensively test your code, so your code doesn't return null or worse 10 instead of 100.

Durian on sale

Some contexts

The browser user agent string is used in many circumstances, on the server side with the User-Agent HTTP header and on the client side with navigator.userAgent. Browsers lie about it. Web apps and websites detection do not cover all cases. So browsers have to modify the user agent string on a site by site case.

Browsers Release Calendar

According to the Firefox release calendar, during the first quarter of 2022 (probably March), Firefox Nightly will reach version 100. It will set Firefox stable release version around May 2022 (if it doesn't change until then).

And Chrome release calendar sets a current date of March 29, 2022.

What Mozilla Webcompat Team is doing?

Dennis Schubert started to test JavaScript Libraries, but this tests only the libraries which are up to date. And we know it, the Web is a legacy machine full of history.

The webcompat team will probably automatically test the top 1000 websites. But this is very rudimentary. It will not cover everything. Sites always break in strange ways.

What Can You Do To Help? Browse the Web with a 100 UA string
  1. Change the user agent string of your favorite browser. For example, if the string is Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10.15; rv:89.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/89.0, change it to be Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10.15; rv:100.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/100.0
  2. If you notice something that is breaking because of the UA string, file a report on webcompat. Do not forget to check that it is working with the normal UA string.
Automatic tests for your code

If your web app has a JavaScript Test suite, add a profile with a browser having 100 for its version number and check if it breaks. Test both Firefox and Chrome (mobile and desktop) because the libraries have different code paths depending on the user agent. Watch out for code like:

const ua_string = "Firefox/100.0"; ua_string.match(/Firefox\/(\d\d)/); // ["Firefox/10", "10"] ua_string.match(/Firefox\/(\d{2})/); // ["Firefox/10", "10"] ua_string.match(/Firefox\/(\d\d)\./); // null Compare version numbers as integer not string

Compare integer, not string when you have decided to have a minimum version for supporting a browser, because

"80" < "99" // true "80" < "100" // false parseInt("80", 10) < parseInt("99", 10) // true parseInt("80", 10) < parseInt("100", 10) // true Comments

If you have more questions, things I may have missed, different take on them. Feel free to comment…. Be mindful.

Otsukare!

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Cameron Kaiser: TenFourFox FPR32 SPR1 available

za, 29/05/2021 - 06:15
TenFourFox Feature Parity Release 32 Security Parity Release 1 "32.1" is available for testing (downloads, hashes). There are no changes to the release notes except that Mozilla has lengthened 78ESR by a couple more weeks, so the end of official builds is now extended to October 5, 2021. Assuming no major problems, FPR32.1 will go live Monday evening Pacific time as usual.
Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Sam Foster: Ideas on a lower-carbon internet through scheduled downloads and Quality of Service requests

za, 29/05/2021 - 02:32

Other titles:

  • The impact of internet use and what we might do about it?
  • Opportunities for powering more internet use with renewables
  • I want this thing, but not until later
  • A story of demand-side prioritization, scheduling and negotiation to take advantage of a fluxuating energy supply.

I recently got interested in how renewable power generation plays into the carbon footprint of internet usage. We need power to run and charge the devices we use to consume internet content, to run the networks that deliver that content to us, and to power the servers and data centers that house those servers.

Powering the internet eats up energy. The power necessary to serve up the files, do the computation, encode and package it all up to send it down the wire to each of the billions of devices making those requests consumes energy on an enormous scale. The process of hosting and delivering content is so power hungry, the industry is driven to large extent by the cost and availability of electricity. Data centers are even described in terms of the power they consume - as a reasonable proxy for the capacity they can supply.

One of the problems we hear about constantly is that the intermittent and relatively unpredicatable nature of wind and solar energy means it can only ever make up a portion of a region’s electricity generation capacity. There’s an expectation of always-on power availability; regardles of the weather or time of day, a factory must run, a building must be lit, and if a device requests some internet resource the request must be met immediately. So, we need reliable base load generation to meet most energy demands. Today, that means coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydro generation plants - which can be depended on to supply energy day and night, all year round. Nuclear and hydro are low-carbon, but they can also be expensive and problematic to develop. Wind and solar are much less so, but as long as their output is intermittent they can only form part of the solution for de-carbonizing electricity grids across the world - as long as demand not supply is king.

There are lots of approaches to tackling this. Better storage options (PDF) smooth out the intermittency of wind and solar - day to day if not seasonally. Carbon capture and sequestration lower the carbon footprint of fossil fuel power generation - but raise the cost. What if that on-demand, constant availability of those data centers’ capacity was itself a variable? Suppose the client device issuing the request had a way to indicate priority and expected delivery time, would that change the dynamic?

Wind power tends to peak early in the morning, solar in the afternoon. Internet traffic is at its highest during the day and evening, and some - most - is necessarily real-time. But if I’m watching a series on Netflix, the next episode could be downloaded at anytime, as long as its available by the next evening when I sit down to watch it. And for computational tasks - like compiling some code, running an automated test suite, or encoding video - sometimes you need it as soon as possible, other times its less urgent. Communicating priority and scheduling requirements (a.k.a Quality of Service) from the client through to the infrastructure used to fullfill a request would allow smarter balancing of demand and resources. It would open up the door to better use of less constant (non-baseload) energy sources. The server could defer on some tasks when power is least available or most expensive, and process them later when for example the sun comes up, or the wind blows. Smoothing out spikes in demand would also reduce the need for so-called “peaker” plants - typically natural gas power plants that are spun up to meet excess energy demand.

“Kestler: While intermittent power is a challenge for data center operations, the development of sensors, software tools and network capabilities will be at the forefront of advancing the deployment of renewables across the globe. The modernization of the grid will be dependent on large power consumers being capable of operating in a less stable flow of electrons.

What’s Ahead for Data Centers in 2021

Google already experimented with some of this, and its a fascinating and encouraging read.

“Results from our pilot suggest that by shifting compute jobs we can increase the amount of lower-carbon energy we consume”

Our data centers now work harder when the sun shines and wind blows

There are clearly going to be hurdles for wide-scale adoption of this kind of strategy, and its never going to work for all cases. But with a problem at this scale, a solution that shaves off 1%, or a fraction of 1% can still translate into huge monetary and carbon savings. So, what would it take? Are there practical steps that us non-data-center-operators can take to facilitate this kind of negotiation betweeen the client and the massive and indifferent upstream infrastructure that supports it?

The low hanging fruit in this scenario is video streaming. It represents an outsized percentage of all internet traffic - and data center load. Netflix alone generates 15% of all global internet traffic. What if even 1% of that could be shifted to be powered entirely by renewable energy, by virtue of the deferred-processing at the supply-side, or scheduled download at the client-side? Often its the case that when I click to watch video, I need it right there and then - perhaps it is a live event, or I didn’t know I needed it until that minute. Sometimes not though. If it was possible to schedule the download ensuring it was there on my device when I did need it, the benefits would ripple through the whole system - content delivery providers would save money and maybe the grid itself would be able to absorb more intermittent renewable generation.

There are other opportunities and I don’t want to get too hung up on specifics. But the notion of attaching Quality of Service in some way to some requests to facilitate smarter utilization of seasonal, regional and weather-dependent energy generation fluxuations seems promising to me. Fundamentally, power demand from worldwide internet traffic is extremely dynamic. We can better meet that demand with equally dynamic low and zero carbon sources if we can introduce patterns and signals at all levels of the system to allow it to plan and adapt.

When I get to the end of a piece like this I’m always left wondering “what is the point?”. Is this just a rant into the void, hoping someone listens? Its certainly not an actionable plan for change. Writing it down helps me process some of these ideas, and I hope it starts conversations and prompts you to spot these kind of indirect opportunities to tackle climate change. And if you are in a position to nudge any of this towards really existing in the world, that would be great. I work at Mozilla, we make a web browser and have our own substantial data-center and compute-time bill. I’ll be looking into what change I can help create there.

Some References

I collected a large list of papers and articles as I looked into this. Here’s a smaller list:

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet