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Take control over your data with Rally, a novel privacy-first data sharing platform

Mozilla Blog - fr, 25/06/2021 - 12:00

Mozilla teams up with Princeton University researchers to enable crowdsourced science for public good; collaborates with research groups at Princeton, Stanford on upcoming studies.

Your data is valuable. But for too long, online services have pilfered, swapped, and exploited your data without your awareness. Privacy violations and filter bubbles are all consequences of a surveillance data economy. But what if, instead of companies taking your data without giving you a say, you could select who gets access to your data and put it to work for public good?

Today, we’re announcing the Mozilla Rally platform. Built for the browser with privacy and transparency at its core, Rally puts users in control of their data and empowers them to contribute their browsing data to crowdfund projects for a better Internet and a better society. At Mozilla, we’re working on building a better internet, one that puts people first, respects their privacy and gives them power over their online experience. We’ve been a leader in privacy features that help you control your data by blocking trackers. But, being “data-empowered” also requires the ability to choose who you want to access your data. 

“Cutting people out of decisions about their data is an inequity that harms individuals, society and the internet. We believe that you should determine who benefits from your data. We are data optimists and want to change the way the data economy works for both people and day-to-day business. We are excited to see how Rally can help understand some of the biggest problems of the internet and make it better.”

Rebecca Weiss, Rally Project Lead

As a first step on this journey, we’re launching the new Rally research initiative, a crowdsourced scientific effort we developed in collaboration with professor Jonathan Mayer’s research group at Princeton University. Computer scientists, social scientists and other researchers will be able to launch groundbreaking studies about the web and invite you to participate. A core focus of the initiative is enabling unprecedented studies that hold major online services accountable.

“Online services constantly experiment on users, to maximize engagement and profit. But for too long, academic researchers have been stymied when trying to experiment on online services. Rally flips the script and enables a new ecosystem of technology policy research.”

Jonathan Mayer, Princeton’s Center for Information Technology Policy

We’re kickstarting the Mozilla Rally research initiative with our first two research collaborator studies. Our first study is “Political and COVID-19 News” and comes from the Princeton team that helped us develop the Rally research initiative. This study examines how people engage with news and misinformation about politics and COVID-19 across online services.  

Soon, we’ll also be launching our second academic study, “Beyond the Paywall”, a study, in partnership with Shoshana Vasserman and Greg Martin of the Stanford University Graduate School of Business. It aims to better understand news consumption, what people value in news and the economics that could build a more sustainable ecosystem for newspapers in the online marketplace.

“We need research to get answers to the hard questions that we face as a society in the information age. But for that research to be credible and reliable, it needs to be transparent, considered and treat every participant with respect. It sounds simple but this takes a lot of work. It needs a standard bearer to make it the expectation in social science. In working with Rally, we hope to be part of that transformation.”

Shoshana Vasserman, Assistant Professor of Economics at the Stanford Graduate School of Business

We are also launching a new toolkit today, WebScience, that enables researchers to build standardized browser-based studies on Rally. WebScience also encourages data minimization, which is central to how Rally will respect people who choose to participate in studies. WebScience was developed and open sourced by Jonathan Mayer’s team at Princeton and is now co-maintained with Mozilla. 

With Rally, we’ve built an innovative, consent-driven data sharing platform that puts power back into the hands of people. By leveraging the scale of web browsers – a piece of software used by billions of people around the world – Rally has the potential to help address societal problems we could not solve before. Our goal is to demonstrate that there is a case for an equitable market for data, one where every party is treated fairly, and we welcome mission-aligned organizations that want to join us on this journey. 

Rally is currently available for Firefox desktop users over age 19 in the United States. We plan to launch Rally for other web browsers and in other countries in the future. 

To participate in Rally, join us at


Interested in joining Rally and want to know how it works?

When you join Rally, you have the opportunity to participate in data crowdsourcing projects — we call them “studies” — focused on understanding and finding solutions for social problems caused by the data economy. You will always see a simple explanation of a study’s purpose, the data it collects, how the data will be used, and who will have access to your data. All your data is stored in Mozilla’s restricted servers, and access to the analysis environment is tightly controlled. For those who really want to dig deep, you can read our detailed disclosures and even inspect our code

The post Take control over your data with Rally, a novel privacy-first data sharing platform appeared first on The Mozilla Blog.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Mozilla Racial Justice Commitments: One Year In

Mozilla Blog - to, 24/06/2021 - 02:25

One year ago, we made a set of commitments to make diversity and inclusion more than a catchphrase or hot button topic. We decided to roll up our sleeves and get busy establishing significant goals, putting resources behind them and making sure that everyone, including our company leadership, was taking action to create a more diverse and equitable place at Mozilla and in society.

We have taken steps to address the issue of anti-Black racism and the lack of diversity and inclusion in our company, and hopefully, in society, through programming and people initiatives.  We have seen a significant increase in participation in diversity and inclusion initiatives, and perhaps, equally important, in our engagement survey results and in particular the increased scores on diversity and inclusion questions by people of color and women. While we have made strides on many of the goals established on June 18, 2020, we recognize this progress is the “First Step Toward Lasting Change.”  We continue to be committed through our actions and resources to improve Mozilla as a place to work for people of color and the internet for all.

1. Who we are: Our employee base and our communities

In our upcoming diversity and inclusion disclosure, you will find that we have greatly invested in improving diversity and enhancing a culture of inclusion at Mozilla. Through a balance of fun, education, celebration and conversations, we created safe spaces for people of color to share the totality of their human experience, honoring the beauty and joy of their lives and holding space to contend with the more sobering and harsh realities of race in society. 

We hosted three  panel discussions that each covered pertinent and insightful topics as designed by our Mozilla Resource Groups. There were the ones that gave us belly laughs – “What does it mean to lose your black card?” – and there were the ones that challenged us – “What is the impact of the model minority myth?” 

We held facilitated discussions designed to provide employees with an opportunity to engage in deep listening and sharing following an onslaught of racial violence across the U.S. These sessions, aptly named Gather @Mozilla, gave us an opportunity to collectively process some of the traumatic and triggering events happening around us. 

Our goal was to provide various options for employees to connect and learn. Recognizing that learning is a personal experience, we offered paths for individual learning and collective learning. We published resource libraries (and shared them publicly: Black History Month, Asian Pacific Islander Heritage Month), hosted virtual cooking lessons, convened talks with renowned authors, curated music playlists (Latin and Hispanic Heritage Month, Black History Month, Women’s History Month, API Heritage Month Playlist) and much more. By providing a breadth of opportunities to celebrate (Latin and Hispanic Heritage Month celebration, Black History Month celebration, Women’s History Month celebration, and Asian Pacific Islander Heritage Month celebration), we increased participation and invited our organization on a journey of co-creating an inclusive culture.  

As we round out the second half of 2021, we will be rolling out an Inclusion Champion program, working with DEI councils within each business group to promote organization-specific D&I programming, deploying a D&I skill development platform, and diversifying our talent acquisition pipeline.

2. What we build: Our outreach with our products

At Mozilla, we work to build a better internet and our products can help elevate the best of the internet. Through Pocket Collections, selections of stories curated by Pocket editors and guest editors, we introduced Collections that elevated diverse voices and gave insight into issues impacting BIPOC communities and the context around which they emerged (Racial Justice Collections, Essential Reading: Celebrating Juneteenth). We hoped to provide readers with content and perspectives they may not otherwise encounter.

We understood that when you point a finger at someone else, there is a finger pointing back at you. Thus, we launched a project that examined when and where biases creep into user research and design and initiated work efforts to reduce the amount of racist language in code (Remove all references to blacklist/whitelist within Gecko, Remove references to slave).

In the second half of 2021, our product teams will continue to identify opportunities to elevate diverse voices and combat unconscious biases in our products.

3. What we do beyond products: Our broader engagement with the world

We leveraged Dialogues & Debates, a speaker series, to address issues of A.I. and race and ethnicity and the challenges presented to communities of color because of this problem in tech and media. We had robust discussions about the use of technology to surveil historically vulnerable populations and used our network to call on fellow technology companies to be mindful of how they use technology in service to the criminal justice system instead of the communities of color we serve. The Mozilla Foundation launched campaigns calling on Nextdoor and Amazon Ring to pause their relationships with police departments and assess the impact of the platforms on users and communities of color. More than 28,000 people signed the petitions and several organizations partnered with Mozilla on escalation actions. 

We were able to have these critical community discussions and collaborations by being more thoughtful and intentional with the ways in which we used available funding from Mozilla Foundation in our commitment to social justice in tech and society. We granted 33% of Mozilla Foundation funds to black-led tech and social justice initiatives. Unfortunately, we fell short of our 40% target. While some may see this as a failure, we see it as an opportunity to acknowledge an area where we still need improvement and to commit to continuing to fund and elevate voices of color.

We also partnered with three Historically Black Colleges and Universities Engineering and Computer Science programs to promote the role of African Americans in tech, to engage in ethical computing discussions, and to cultivate relationships with aspiring scientists, designers and tech leaders so they understand there is a place for them in this industry.

Over the coming year, we are looking forward to deepening our relationships with institutions that serve and support communities of color and communities that have been historically marginalized. The First Step Toward Lasting Change squarely moves us along the journey of diversity, equity, inclusion and belonging but is not the middle nor final step. There remains significant room for improvement and we are committed to continue the course in closing the gaps that exist in tech and society.  

The post Mozilla Racial Justice Commitments: One Year In appeared first on The Mozilla Blog.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Gary Linden, legendary surfer & Firefox fan

Mozilla Blog - fr, 18/06/2021 - 18:00

On the internet you are never alone, and because of that at Mozilla we know that we can’t work to build a better internet alone. We believe in and rely on our community — from our volunteers, to our staff, to our users and even the parent’s of our staff (who also happen to be some of our power users). For Father’s Day, Mozilla’s Natalie Linden sat down with her father, big wave surf legend and surfboard maker, Gary Linden to talk the ocean, the internet and where humanity goes from here.

We should probably start by telling people who we are. I am Natalie Linden, the Director of the Creative Studio in Mozilla marketing.

And I’m Gary Linden. I’m your father. That’s probably my best accomplishment.

Awww Dad.

I make surfboards, run surfing events and surf. I’m semi-retired. Sort of.

Gary Linden

I don’t think you’re giving yourself enough credit. When I tell people I’m Gary Linden’s daughter, they always say “Gary Linden?! He’s a legend!”

You know, if you’re involved in something for all your life, and you do a reasonably good job, you’ll get old and then you’ll be the oldest one around. So of course you’ll be the legend! 

One of the things you’re the oldest guy doing is paddling into really, really big waves. 

Yeah I’m a big wave surfer, that’s been my passion. I wasn’t afraid of the ocean or of big waves, and that set me apart from most other surfers. So I got admission to a club that was pretty exclusive. And that was pretty cool. Then I started the Big Wave World Tour so younger surfers could have a career path to becoming a big wave rider. Big wave surfing takes more time and resources: you have to have the means to travel, the boards are more expensive. We weren’t seeing the younger people really be able to surf the big waves so we weren’t seeing what could be done in the peak athletic performance years. I’m pretty proud of that tour.

One of the questions I was going to ask you is why you do what you do, and I think you’re starting to answer that. The way you’ve always described it to me is that from the first time you rode a wave on a surfboard, you knew that’s what you wanted to do, and you’ve oriented your whole life around being able to surf as much as possible.

Yes. Even before I rode a surfboard, my father took me to the ocean and taught me to play in the waves, and about the currents, and body surfing. The freedom of it was like nothing else. I had asthma and hay fever, and when I was in the ocean I didn’t feel any of that. Whereas on land the pollens and the dryness just made being on the land kind of miserable. Like a fish out of water in a lot of ways. It was always rewarding for me to go into the ocean. It goes beyond just feeling good. It’s a state of mind as well. 

So you started making surfboards, too. 

I started making surfboards because surfing went into a transitional period — we all had longboards and then in the 70s, some of the Australians started experimenting with boards that were a foot shorter. There was nobody in San Diego making them, so I got a blank and shaped a board. And then I started making them for my friends, and it just set me on a path. But I’ve always made surfboards so that I could have the boards I needed to surf. If somebody else wanted one, that was fine, but I wasn’t making it for them. I was making it for me. Because surfing — not surfboard making — was my primary focus. 

How has the internet changed what you do?

Well first, the internet has made it incredibly easy to find out where the best waves of the day are. There are cameras all over the world now and you get surf reports. You don’t have to drive to the beach — you can live inland and plan ahead. And this year with the pandemic, live surfing competition was pretty much shut down. So a friend and I created a virtual surfing world tour called Surf Web Series, where we could take video clips of surfers who had gone out the prior year, take a little video of their best waves and then we’d put those in heats just like a regular event and judge them and take it all the way to a final like a surfing competition. That was a lot of fun because it filled the gaps for a lot of the kids who are surfing professionally but they couldn’t give anything back to their sponsors during the pandemic because they weren’t competing, they didn’t have a way to get exposure, they didn’t have a way to further their career. This gave them an opportunity to keep going in their career, and keep the world interested in the sport of surfing. It’s opened up another avenue for the sport. 

I just focus on being in the best shape I possibly can, so I can surf. And I’m going to do it as long as I can. And when I can’t stand up anymore, I’ll be on a belly board. And when I can’t do that, I’ll jump in the waves.

One of the things I really admire about you, dad, is that you never stop having ideas. You set this intention of surfing for your life, and you keep finding new ways at it. You’re 71 and you’re still growing, you’re still changing, you’re still figuring out how to use the latest tools and culture to do the thing you set out to do. It inspires me every single day. It also helps that I see it up close, because we share an office!

Well you inspire me too, because of your energy and motivation. I don’t think you’re ever going to stop either, because you are inspired, you are motivated. That’s what surfing was for me: it gave me something to focus on 100%. I love it so much, and it’s so good for me, that I don’t go snowboarding, I don’t skateboard, I don’t play football, I don’t ride bicycles. I don’t want to get hurt doing anything else. I don’t drink, or stay out at night. I just focus on being in the best shape I possibly can, so I can surf. And I’m going to do it as long as I can. And when I can’t stand up anymore, I’ll be on a belly board. And when I can’t do that, I’ll jump in the waves. I don’t really care. I just like that original feeling of going in the ocean with my dad and feeling clean and involved with the earth. My connection with the earth is the ocean. 

Speaking of staying in shape, how has your relationship with the internet changed since the pandemic?

You know the answer to this one, since we share a yoga room at our office. I started yoga about three years ago now because I wanted to be in better shape for surfing. I didn’t want to go at first because everyone was so young and as a beginner, it was intimidating. I couldn’t really keep up and felt awkward. But I found a geriatric yoga class, and it was really fun. I was getting better. Then with the pandemic, they started a zoom class. And now it’s actually even better. Because for older people, it’s still really intimidating. Now we can focus on the teacher and not feel self-conscious. It’s pretty awesome. Now you can do your work on the internet too — all the meetings and stuff. I mean, sometimes I wish the internet wasn’t there because you have to focus a lot more to stay grounded on the earth. Otherwise you’re just in that cloud. And that’s a really all-consuming place to be. I don’t think we were really made for that. So it’s another area where you have to find your balance. But you gotta find your balance in everything anyway. Even pigeon pose! 

Is there something about technology that blows your mind?

Yeah, it doesn’t ever stop. It’s like watching science fiction happen in real life. It goes so fast. I’m fortunate enough that I was born before television, so I’ve seen a lot of stuff change. It’s so rapid. If you go back in history and think about evolution, it took so long for us not to be covered in hair, and to be able to talk, and now we’re talking about having chips in our bodies to help us heal, and artificial intelligence. If you dwell on it, it’s really overwhelming for someone my age. It can be scary. But there’s a lot of positive to it, so you’ve gotta stay on that side. 

Speaking of positivity, what’s your favorite fun stuff to do online?

I like Facebook and Instagram because I get to have some kind of contact with people all over the world. I’ve got friends everywhere from my life of traveling, and when I post something, the person who comments could be someone I haven’t talked to for 50 years! I like going on Surfline to see the surf report. And I like to write and receive emails. Because it used to be such a lag! I used to write letters to my friends, and it would be a month between receipt. And you’d change in that month. But with email, you can keep the conversation going without interruption.

…it took so long for us not to be covered in hair, and to be able to talk, and now we’re talking about having chips in our bodies to help us heal, and artificial intelligence. If you dwell on it, it’s really overwhelming for someone my age. It can be scary. But there’s a lot of positive to it, so you’ve gotta stay on that side.

What’s your hope for how technology can change or improve the future? What do you want [your grandson] Nimo to be able to do?

I would like my grandson to be able to use the internet to feed and shelter the world. I don’t know how it’ll work, but you can already see… GoFundMe has helped the lives of a lot of my friends who got to my age or older, and just didn’t put anything away. Everybody throws a hundred bucks in, and all the sudden the guy’s at least got a chance to make it to hospice. That’s the kind of thing I hope we can do, that the communication will help us realize that it’s not just one person or one country versus another. It’s our world, and we have to all live together. I hope we get to the point that we see it’s a global economy, a global outcome. That we have to live as humans and not Americans or Chinese or Russians. I just think being able to communicate and see that we’re all the same, we all have the same needs. Food, shelter, companionship. If you get all that, you don’t really need anything else. 

That’s exactly why I work at Mozilla: I believe our collective future will be decided on the internet. So we need to make sure it’s a place that can breed a positive outcome. 

That’s right. And that’s the scary part we saw in the last election. All the junk that was online! So many lies! We didn’t know what was true, and what wasn’t true, and we had to decide for ourselves. We had to create our own filters. We had to choose the truth we wanted, the one that reflected the future of the world we want. 

You’re my hero, Dad. Happy Father’s Day.

Natalie Linden and her dad,
Gary Linden

The post Gary Linden, legendary surfer & Firefox fan appeared first on The Mozilla Blog.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

What is the difference between the internet, browsers, search engines and websites?

Mozilla Blog - to, 17/06/2021 - 20:32

Real talk: this web stuff can get confusing. And it’s really important that we all understand how it works, so we can be as informed and empowered as possible. Let’s start by breaking down the differences between the internet, browsers, search engines and websites. Lots of us get these four things confused with each other and use them interchangeably, though they are different. In this case, the old “information superhighway” analogy comes in handy.

Let’s start by breaking down the differences between internet, search engine, and browser. Lots of us get these three things confused with each other.

In this case, the old “internet superhighway” analogy comes in handy.

The internet

The internet is the superhighway’s system of roads, bridges and tunnels. It is the technical network and infrastructure that connect all the computers and devices that are online together across the world. Being connected to the internet means devices, and whoever is using them, can communicate with each other and share information.


The browser is the car that gets you everywhere. You type a destination into the address bar and zoooom: your browser takes you anywhere on the internet. Firefox is a browser — one built specifically for people, not profit.

Search engines

Search engines like Yahoo, Google, Bing and DuckDuckGo are the compass and the map. You tell a search engine an idea of where you want to go by typing your search terms, and it gives you some possible destinations. Search engines are websites, and they can also be apps. More on apps later.

Websites and the web

Effectively, you drive along the internet highway, stopping at whatever towns, stores and roadside attractions catch your fancy, aka websites. Websites are the specific destinations you visit throughout the internet. This is the content — the webpages, websites, documents, social media, news, videos, images and so on that you view and experience via the internet. The “web” (which is short for “world wide web”, hence “www”) is the collection of all these websites.


Any program that you download and install on your device is an app. Browsers are apps. Some websites — like Facebook, YouTube, Spotify and The New York Times, for example — double up as apps, so you get the same or similar content on the app as you would on the corresponding website. 

The key thing to remember about apps, especially social media apps, is that while they are accessed via a connection to the internet (the infrastructure), content on them does not represent the full web. It’s just a slice. In addition, not everything published in an app is necessarily publicly accessible on the web. 
The web is the largest software platform ever, a great equalizer that works on any device, anywhere. By design, the web is open for anyone to participate in. Read more about Mozilla’s mission to keep the internet open and accessible to all.

Know someone who gets these things mixed up? It’s easy to do!
Pass this article along to share the knowledge.

The post What is the difference between the internet, browsers, search engines and websites? appeared first on The Mozilla Blog.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Celebrating our community: 10 years of the Reps Program

Mozilla Blog - wo, 16/06/2021 - 16:33

Mozilla has always been about community and understanding that the internet is a better place when we work together. Ten years ago, Mozilla created the Reps program to add structure to our regional programs, further building off of our open source foundation. Over the last decade, the program has helped activate local communities in over 50 countries, tested Mozilla products and launches before they were released to the public, and collaborated on some of our biggest projects. 

The last decade also has seen big shifts in technology, and it has only made us at Mozilla more thankful for our volunteers and more secure in our belief that community and collaboration are key to making a better internet.  

“As the threats to a healthy internet persist, our network of collaborative communities and contributors continues to provide an essential role in helping us make it better,” said Mitchell Baker, CEO and Chairwoman of Mozilla. “These passionate Mozillians give up their time to educate, empower and mobilize others to support Mozilla’s mission and expand the impact of the open source ecosystem – a critical part of making the internet more accessible and better than how they found it.”

Ahead of our 10 year anniversary virtual celebration for the Reps Mozilla program, or ReMo for short, we connected with six of the 205 current reps to talk about their favorite parts of the internet, why community is so important, and where the Reps program can go from here. 

Please introduce yourself! What community do you represent and how long have you been in the Mozilla Reps program?

Ioana Chiorean: I am the Reps Module Owner at this time. I am part of Mozilla Romania, but have always been involved in technical communities directly, like QA, Firefox OS and support. My latest roles have been more on the advocacy side as Tech Speaker and building the Reps community. I’ve been in the Reps program since 2011.

Irvin Chen: I’m a Mozilla Rep from Taipei, Taiwan. I’m representing the Mozilla Taiwan Community, one of the oldest Mozilla communities.

Lidya Christina: I’m a Mozilla Reps from Jakarta, Indonesia. I’ve been involved in the Reps program for more than two years now. I am also part of the review and resources team, provide operational support for the Mozilla community space in Jakarta, and a translator for the Mozilla localization project.

Michael Kohler: I have been part of the Reps program since 2012, and I am currently a Reps Peer helping out with strategy-related topics within the Reps program. After organizing events and building the community in Switzerland, I moved to Berlin in 2018 and started to help there. In the past 13 years I have worked on different Mozilla products such as Firefox, Firefox OS and Common Voice. 

Pranshu Khanna: I’m Pranshu Khanna, a Reps Council Member for the current term and a Rep from Mozilla Gujarat. I started my journey as a Firefox Student Ambassador from an event in January 2016, where my first contribution was to introduce the world of Open Source to over 150 college students. Since then, I’ve spoken to thousands of people about privacy, open web and open source to people across the world and have been a part of hundreds of events, programs and initiatives.

Robert Sayles: Currently, I reside in Dallas, Texas, and I represent the North American community. I first joined the Mozilla Reps program in 2012, focusing mainly on my volunteer contribution to the Mozilla Festival Volunteer Coordinator 2013. 

What part of the internet do you get the most joy from?

Irvin: For me, the most exciting thing about the internet is that no matter who you are or where you are located, you can always find and make some friends on the internet. For example, apart from each other, we could still collaborate online and successfully host the release party of Firefox in early 2000. Mozilla gives us, the local community contributors, the opportunity to participate, contribute and learn from each other on a global scale.

Michael: Nyan Cat is probably the part of the internet that I get most joy from. Kidding aside, for me the best part of the internet is probably the possibility to learn new astonishing facts about things I otherwise would never have looked up. All the knowledge is a few clicks away.

Pranshu: The most joyful moments from the internet have always come from being connected to people. It was 2006, and the ability to be on chat boards on a dial-up modem on 256Kbps to connect with people about anything, and scraping people on Orkut (remember that?). It’s been a ride, and now I speak to my mother everyday through FaceTime who is thousands of miles away and to my colleagues across the world. I would have been a kid in a small town in India who would not have imagined a world this big without the internet. It helped me embrace the idea of open knowledge and learn so much.

Why did you join the Mozilla family?

Lidya: I started in 2016, when I attended an offline localization event at the Mozilla community space in Jakarta for the first time. I have continued to be involved in localization (L10N) events since then, and I also joined the Mozilla Indonesia community to help manage events and the community space in Jakarta.

What makes me really engage with the community is that I appreciate that it is a supportive environment where the opportunities to learn (locally and globally) are wide. 

Michael: When I was in high school one of my teachers was a Firefox contributor. At some point he showed us what he is working on and that got me hooked into Mozilla. Already back then I had a big interest in open source, however it hadn’t occurred to me to contribute until that moment. I was mostly impressed by the kindness and willingness to help volunteers to contribute to Mozilla’s mission and products. I didn’t have much in-person contact with the community for the first three years, but the more I got to know many more Mozillians all around the world, the more I felt like I belonged in this community. I have found friends from all over the world due to my involvement with Mozilla!

Pranshu: Roots. Mozilla has its roots in activism since the time the internet was born, and my connection with the Mozilla manifesto was instant. I realized that it wasn’t just marketing fluff since this is a community built with passion like the company is, from a small community of developers working to build not just a browser, but user’s freedom of choice. Mozilla’s community is important to how it started and where it’s being taken, and — if you’re committed to be a part of the journey — shape the future of the internet. I have been a part of protesting Aadhaar for user privacy, building India’s National Privacy Law, mentor Open Source Leaders, and much much more. I’m so grateful for being a part of this family that genuinely wants to help people fall in love with what they are doing.

What is your favorite Mozilla product or Firefox project, and why?

Lidya: Beside the browser, my top favorite project/product are Pontoon (localization tool) and Firefox Monitor to get notified if my account was part of a data breach or not.

Michael: My favorite Mozilla product got to be Firefox. I’ve been a Firefox user for a long time and since 2008 I’ve been using Firefox Nightly (appropriately called “Minefield” back then). Since then I have been an avid advocate for Firefox and suggested Firefox to everyone who wasn’t already using Firefox. Thanks to Firefox my software engineering knowledge grew over time and up to this day has helped me in my career. And all that of course apart from being the window to the online world!

Pranshu: I love Common Voice! If I could use emojis, this would be filled with hearts. Common Voice is such a noble project to help people around the world give a voice. The beauty of the project is how it democratizes locales and gives people across all demographics a voice in the binary technological world.

Robert: I enjoyed working with Firefox Flicks many moons ago; as a Mozilla Rep, I had the privilege of interacting with the many talented creators and exploring how they were able to express themselves; I thought it was fantastic.   

Mozilla uses the term “community” quite a bit, and it means different things to different people – what does the Mozilla community mean to you?

Ioana: For me, it literally means the people. Especially those that dedicate their free time to help others, to volunteer. It is the place I grew up as a professional and learned so much about different cultures worldwide.

Pranshu: The Mozilla community is my family. I’ve met so many people across the world who passionately believe in the open web. This is a very different ecosystem than what the world considers a community, we are really close to each other. After all, doing good is a part of all of our code. 

Robert: Mozilla community means everyone brings something different to the table; I have witnessed a powerful movement over the years. When everyone gets together and brings their knowledge to the table, we can make a difference in the world.   

How has the ReMo program evolved over the past decade, and where do you think the program is headed?

Irvin: The Reps program had played an important role in connecting the isolated local communities. With regular meetups and events, we can meet with each other, receive regular updates from various projects, and collaborate on different efforts. As a community with years of history, we can extend our help beyond local users to foreign Mozillians by sharing our experience, such as experiences on community building, planning events, setting up the local website…etc.

Michael: In the past years Reps continued to provide important knowledge about their regions, such as organizing bug hunting events to test local websites to make sure they work for Firefox Quantum. There would have been quite a few bugs without the volunteers testing local websites that Mozilla employees wouldn’t have been able to test themselves. Additionally, Reps have always been great at coordinating communities and helping out with conflicts in the community.

I see a bright future for the Reps program. Mozilla can do so much more with the help of volunteers. Mozilla Reps is the perfect program to help coordinate, find and grow communities to advance Mozilla’s vision and mission over the coming years to come.

Pranshu: In the last decade the ReMo program has evolved from helping people to read, write and build on the internet to making the ecosystem better through creating leaders and helping users focus on their privacy. The program is headed to create pillars in the society that are committed to catalyse collaboration amongst diverse communities together for the common good, destroying silos that divide people. ReMo has Reps across the world, and I can imagine the community building great things together.

The post Celebrating our community: 10 years of the Reps Program appeared first on The Mozilla Blog.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Ryan Harter: Getting Credit for Invisible Work

Mozilla planet - to, 03/06/2021 - 09:00

Last month I gave a talk at csv,conf on "Getting Credit for Invisible Work". The (amazing) csv,conf organizers just published a recording of the talk. (slides here). Give it a watch! It's only 20m long (including the Q&A).

Invisible work is a concept I've been trying to …

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

About:Community: Firefox 89: The New Contributors To MR1

Mozilla planet - wo, 02/06/2021 - 21:29

Firefox 89 would not have been possible without our community, and it is a great privilege for us to thank all the developers who contributed their first code change to MR1, 44 of whom were brand new volunteers!

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Data@Mozilla: This week in Glean: Glean Dictionary updates

Mozilla planet - wo, 02/06/2021 - 18:16

(“This Week in Glean” is a series of blog posts that the Glean Team at Mozilla is using to try to communicate better about our work. They could be release notes, documentation, hopes, dreams, or whatever: so long as it is inspired by Glean.) All “This Week in Glean” blog posts are listed in the TWiG index (and on the Mozilla Data blog).

Lots of progress on the Glean Dictionary since I made the initial release announcement a couple of months ago. For those coming in late, the Glean Dictionary is intended to be a data dictionary for applications built using the Glean SDK and Glean.js. This currently includes Firefox for Android and Firefox iOS, as well as newer initiatives like Rally. Desktop Firefox will use Glean in the future, see Firefox on Glean (FoG).

Production URL

We’re in production! You can now access the Glean Dictionary at The old protosaur-based URL will redirect.

Glean Dictionary + Looker = ❤️

At the end of last year, Mozilla chose Looker as our internal business intelligence tool. Frank Bertsch, Daniel Thorn, Anthony Miyaguchi and others have been building out first class support for Glean applications inside this platform, and we’re starting to see these efforts bear fruit. Looker’s explores are far easier to use for basic data questions, opening up data based inquiry to a much larger cross section of Mozilla.

I recorded a quick example of this integration here:

Note that Looker access is restricted to Mozilla employees and NDA’d volunteers. Stay tuned for more public data to be indexed inside the Glean Dictionary in the future.

Glean annotations!

I did up the first cut of a GitHub-based system for adding annotations to metrics – acting as a knowledge base for things data scientists and others have discovered about Glean Telemetry in the field. This can be invaluable when doing new analysis. A good example of this is the annotation added for the opened as default browser metric for Firefox for iOS, which has several gotchas:

Many thanks to Krupa Raj and Leif Oines for producing the requirements which led up to this implementation, as well as their evangelism of this work more generally inside Mozilla. Last month, Leif and I did a presentation about this at Data Club, which has been syndicated onto YouTube:

Since then, we’ve had a very successful working session with some people Data Science and have started to fill out an initial set of annotations. You can see the progress in the glean-annotations repository.

Other Improvements

Lots more miscellaneous improvements and fixes have gone into the Glean Dictionary in the last several months: see our releases for a full list. One thing that irrationally pleases me are the new labels Linh Nguyen added last week: colorful and lively, they make it easy to see when a Glean Metric is coming from a library:

Future work

The Glean Dictionary is just getting started! In the next couple of weeks, we’re hoping to:

  • Expand the Looker integration outlined above, as our deploy takes more shape.
  • Work on adding “feature” classification to the Glean Dictionary, to make it easier for product managers and other non-engineering types to quickly find the metrics and other information they need without needing to fully understand what’s in the source tree.
  • Continue to refine the user interface of the Glean Dictionary as we get more feedback from people using it across Mozilla.

If you’re interested in getting involved, join us! The Glean Dictionary is developed in the open using cutting edge front-end technologies like Svelte. Our conviction is that being transparent about the data Mozilla collects helps us build trust with our users and the community. We’re a friendly group and hang out on the #glean-dictionary channel on Matrix.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

William Lachance: Glean Dictionary updates

Mozilla planet - wo, 02/06/2021 - 18:01

(this is a cross-post from the data blog)

Lots of progress on the Glean Dictionary since I made the initial release announcement a couple of months ago. For those coming in late, the Glean Dictionary is intended to be a data dictionary for applications built using the Glean SDK and Glean.js. This currently includes Firefox for Android and Firefox iOS, as well as newer initiatives like Rally. Desktop Firefox will use Glean in the future, see Firefox on Glean (FoG).

Production URL

We’re in production! You can now access the Glean Dictionary at The old protosaur-based URL will redirect.

Glean Dictionary + Looker = ❤️

At the end of last year, Mozilla chose Looker as our internal business intelligence tool. Frank Bertsch, Daniel Thorn, Anthony Miyaguchi and others have been building out first class support for Glean applications inside this platform, and we’re starting to see these efforts bear fruit. Looker’s explores are far easier to use for basic data questions, opening up data based inquiry to a much larger cross section of Mozilla.

I recorded a quick example of this integration here:

Note that Looker access is restricted to Mozilla employees and NDA’d volunteers. Stay tuned for more public data to be indexed inside the Glean Dictionary in the future.

Glean annotations!

I did up the first cut of a GitHub-based system for adding annotations to metrics — acting as a knowledge base for things data scientists and others have discovered about Glean Telemetry in the field. This can be invaluable when doing new analysis. A good example of this is the annotation added for the opened as default browser metric for Firefox for iOS, which has several gotchas:

Many thanks to Krupa Raj and Leif Oines for producing the requirements which led up to this implementation, as well as their evangelism of this work more generally inside Mozilla. Last month, Leif and I did a presentation about this at Data Club, which has been syndicated onto YouTube:

Since then, we’ve had a very successful working session with some people Data Science and have started to fill out an initial set of annotations. You can see the progress in the glean-annotations repository.

Other Improvements

Lots more miscellaneous improvements and fixes have gone into the Glean Dictionary in the last several months: see our releases for a full list. One thing that irrationally pleases me are the new labels Linh Nguyen added last week: colorful and lively, they make it easy to see when a Glean Metric is coming from a library:

Future work

The Glean Dictionary is just getting started! In the next couple of weeks, we’re hoping to:

  • Expand the Looker integration outlined above, as our deploy takes more shape.
  • Work on adding “feature” classification to the Glean Dictionary, to make it easier for product managers and other non-engineering types to quickly find the metrics and other information they need without needing to fully understand what’s in the source tree.
  • Continue to refine the user interface of the Glean Dictionary as we get more feedback from people using it across Mozilla.

If you’re interested in getting involved, join us! The Glean Dictionary is developed in the open using cutting edge front-end technologies like Svelte. Our conviction is that being transparent about the data Mozilla collects helps us build trust with our users and the community. We’re a friendly group and hang out on the #glean-dictionary channel on Matrix.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Mozilla Security Blog: Updating GPG key for signing Firefox Releases

Mozilla planet - wo, 02/06/2021 - 10:29

Mozilla offers GPG signing to let you verify the integrity of our Firefox builds. GPG signatures for Linux based builds are particularly important, because it allows Linux distributions and other repackagers to verify that the source code they use to build Firefox actually comes from Mozilla.

We regularly rotate our GPG signing subkey — usually every two years — to guard against the unlikely possibility that the key has been leaked without our knowledge. Last week, such a rotation happened, and we switched over to the new signing subkey.

The new GPG subkey’s fingerprint is 14F2 6682 D091 6CDD 81E3 7B6D 61B7 B526 D98F 0353, and will expire on 2023-05-17.

If you are interested in performing a verification of your copy of Firefox, you can fetch the public key directly from our KEY files from the Firefox 89 release, or alternatively directly from below.


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The post Updating GPG key for signing Firefox Releases appeared first on Mozilla Security Blog.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Hacks.Mozilla.Org: Looking fine with Firefox 89

Mozilla planet - ti, 01/06/2021 - 17:19

While we’re sitting here feeling a bit frumpy after a year with reduced activity, Firefox 89 has smartened up and brings with it a slimmed down, slightly more minimalist interface.

Along with this new look, we get some great styling features including a force-colors feature for media queries and better control over how fonts are displayed. The long awaited top-level await keyword for JavaScript modules is now enabled, as well as the PerformanceEventTiming interface, which is another addition to the performance suite of APIs: 89 really has been working out!

This blog post provides merely a set of highlights; for all the details, check out the following:

forced-colors media feature

The forced-colors CSS media feature detects if a user agent restricts the color palette used on a web page. For instance Windows has a High Contrast mode. If it’s turned on, using forced-colors: active within a CSS media query would apply the styles nested inside.

In this example we have a .button class that declares a box-shadow property, giving any HTML element using that class a nice drop-shadow.

If forced-colors mode is active, this shadow would not be rendered, so instead we’re declaring a border to make up for the shadow loss:

.button { border: 0; padding: 10px; box-shadow: -2px -2px 5px gray, 2px 2px 5px gray; } @media (forced-colors: active) { .button { /* Use a border instead, since box-shadow is forced to 'none' in forced-colors mode */ border: 2px ButtonText solid; } } Better control for displayed fonts

Firefox 89 brings with it the line-gap-override, ascent-override and descent-override CSS properties. These allow developers more control over how fonts are displayed. The following snippet shows just how useful these properties are when using a local fallback font:

@font-face { font-family: web-font; src: url("<>"); } @font-face { font-family: local-font; src: local(Local Font); ascent-override: 90%; descent-override: 110%; line-gap-override: 120%; }

These new properties help to reduce layout shift when fonts are loading, as developers can better match the intricacies of a local font with a web font. They work alongside the size-adjust property which is currently behind a preference in Firefox 89.

Top-level await

If you’ve been writing JavaScript over the past few years you’ve more than likely become familiar with async functions. Now the await keyword, usually confined to use within an async function, has been given independence and allowed to go it alone. As long as it stays within modules that is.

In short, this means JavaScript modules that have child modules using top level await wait for that child to execute before they themselves run. All while not blocking other child modules from loading.

Here is a very small example of a module using the >a href=””>Fetch API and specifying await within the export statement. Any modules that include this will wait for the fetch to resolve before running any code.

// fetch request const colors = fetch('../data/colors.json') .then(response => response.json()); export default await colors; PerformanceEventTiming

A new look can’t go unnoticed without mentioning performance. There’s a plethora of Performance APIs, which give developers granular power over their own bespoke performance tests. The PerformanceEventTiming interface is now available in Firefox 89 and provides timing information for a whole array of events. It adds yet another extremely useful feature for developers by cleverly giving information about when a user-triggered event starts and when it ends. A very welcome addition to the new release.

The post Looking fine with Firefox 89 appeared first on Mozilla Hacks - the Web developer blog.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Henri Sivonen: Bogo-XML Declaration Returns to Gecko

Mozilla planet - ti, 01/06/2021 - 16:02

Firefox 89 was released today. This release (again!) honors a character encoding declaration made via syntax that looks like an XML declaration used in text/html (if there are no other character encoding declarations).

Before HTML parsing was specified, Internet Explorer did not support declaring the encoding of a text/html document using the XML declaration syntax. However, Gecko, WebKit, and Presto did. Unfortunately, I didn’t realize that they did.

When Hixie specified HTML parsing, consistent with IE, he didn’t make the spec sensitive to the XML declaration syntax in a particular way. I am unable to locate any discussion in the WHATWG mailing list archives about whether an encoding declaration made using the XML declaration syntax in text/html should be honored when processing text/html.

When I implemented the specified HTML parsing algorithm in Gecko, I also implemented the internal encoding declaration handling per specification. As a side effect, in Firefox 4, I removed Gecko’s support for the XML declaration syntax for declaring the character encoding in text/html. I don’t recall this having been a knowingly-made decision: The rewrite just did strictly what the spec said.

When WebKit and Presto implemented the specified HTML parsing algorithm, they only implemented the tokenization and tree building parts and kept their old ways for handling character encoding declarations. That is, they continued to honor the XML declaration syntax for declaring the character encoding text/html. I don’t recall the developers of the either engine raising this as a spec issue back then.

The closest to the issue getting raised as a spec issue was for the wrong reason, which made people push back instead of fixing the spec.

When Blink forked, it inherited WebKit’s behavior. When Microsoft switched from EdgeHTML to Blink, Gecko became the only actively-developed major engine not to support the XML declaration syntax for declaring the character encoding text/html. Since unlabeled UTF-8 is not automatically detected, this became a Web compatibility issue with pages that declare UTF-8 but only using the XML declaration syntax (i.e. without a BOM, a meta, or HTTP-layer declaration as well).

And that’s why support for declaring the character encoding via the XML declaration syntax came to the HTML spec and back to Gecko.

What Can We learn?
  • When the majority of engines has a behavior, we should assume that content is authored with the expectation that that behavior exists, and we can’t rely on assuming that all content is tested with the engine that doesn’t have the behavior even if that engine has the majority market share.

    (In general, the HTML parsing algorithm upheld IE behaviors a bit too much. I regret that I didn’t push for non-IE behavior in tokenization when a less-than sign is encountered inside a tag token.)

  • Instead of just trusting the spec, also check with other engines do.

  • If you aren’t willing to implement what the spec says, you should raise the issue of the standardization forum.

  • If an issue is raised for a bad reason, pay attention to if there is an adjacent issue that needs fixing for a good reason.

  • “We comply with the spec” is unlikely to be a winning response to a long-standing Web compatibilty bug.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Mozilla Security Blog: Firefox 89 blocks cross-site cookie tracking by default in private browsing

Mozilla planet - ti, 01/06/2021 - 14:55

At Mozilla, we believe that your right to privacy is fundamental. Unfortunately, for too long cookies have been used by tracking companies to gather data about you as you browse the web. Today, with the launch of Firefox 89, we are happy to announce that Firefox Private Browsing windows now include our innovative Total Cookie Protection by default. That means: when you open a Private Browsing window, each website you visit is given a separate cookie jar that keeps cookies confined to that site. Cookies can no longer be used to follow you from site to site and gather your browsing history.

What is Total Cookie Protection?

In February of this year we introduced Total Cookie Protection, a new, extra-strong protection against cross-site tracking cookies. Since Firefox 86, Total Cookie Protection has been available for users who have ETP Strict Mode enabled. Now, with Firefox 89, we are extending this same protection to Private Browsing windows.

To recap: a cookie is a small piece of data that websites can ask your browser to store on your computer. Traditionally, browsers have allowed websites to share cookies in what is effectively a single cookie jar. Firefox’s Total Cookie Protection is a sophisticated set of privacy improvements that enforce a simple, revolutionary principle: your browser should not allow the sharing of cookies between websites. This principle is now enforced in Firefox Private Browsing windows by creating a separate cookie jar for every website you visit, as illustrated here:

Previously, third-party cookies were shared between websites. Now, every website gets its own cookie jar so that cookies can’t be used to share data between them. (Illustration: Meghan Newell)

As we described in February, Total Cookie Protection covers not just cookies but a variety of browser technologies that previously were able to be used for cross-site tracking. To ensure a smooth browsing experience, Total Cookie Protection makes occasional exceptions to share cookies between websites when they are needed for cross-site logins or similar cross-site functionality.

Firefox Private Browsing Windows, now with even more privacy

With the addition of Total Cookie Protection, Firefox’s Private Browsing windows have the most advanced privacy protections of any major browser’s private browsing mode. The following protections are included in Private Browsing windows by default:

If you have Firefox installed, you don’t need to do anything special to benefit from this upgrade to Private Browsing windows. To open a Private Browsing window, click on the Application Menu button (☰) and choose “New Private Window”:

Screenshot of the application menu with New Private Window selected.Or, if you like keyboard shortcuts, just press Ctrl + Shift + P (Cmd + Shift + P on Mac). When you are done with that private browsing session, you can simply close all your Private Browsing windows. All the cookies and other stored data from the websites you visited will be immediately deleted!

As we continue to strengthen Firefox’s privacy protections, Mozilla is committed to maintaining state-of-the-art performance and a first-class browsing experience. Stay tuned for more privacy advances in the coming months!

Thank you

We are grateful to the many Mozillians who have contributed to or supported this new enhancement to Firefox, including Steven Englehardt, Andrea Marchesini, Tim Huang, Johann Hofmann, Gary Chen, Nihanth Subramanya, Paul Zühlcke, Tanvi Vyas, Anne van Kesteren, Ethan Tseng, Prangya Basu, Wennie Leung, Ehsan Akhgari, Dimi Lee, Selena Deckelmann, Mikal Lewis, Tom Ritter, Eric Rescorla, Olli Pettay, Philip Luk, Kim Moir, Gregory Mierzwinski, Doug Thayer, and Vicky Chin.

The post Firefox 89 blocks cross-site cookie tracking by default in private browsing appeared first on Mozilla Security Blog.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Karl Dubost: Get Ready For Three Digits User Agent Strings

Mozilla planet - mo, 31/05/2021 - 04:43

In 2022, Firefox and Chrome will reach a version number with three digits: 100. It's time to get ready and extensively test your code, so your code doesn't return null or worse 10 instead of 100.

Durian on sale

Some contexts

The browser user agent string is used in many circumstances, on the server side with the User-Agent HTTP header and on the client side with navigator.userAgent. Browsers lie about it. Web apps and websites detection do not cover all cases. So browsers have to modify the user agent string on a site by site case.

Browsers Release Calendar

According to the Firefox release calendar, during the first quarter of 2022 (probably March), Firefox Nightly will reach version 100. It will set Firefox stable release version around May 2022 (if it doesn't change until then).

And Chrome release calendar sets a current date of March 29, 2022.

What Mozilla Webcompat Team is doing?

Dennis Schubert started to test JavaScript Libraries, but this tests only the libraries which are up to date. And we know it, the Web is a legacy machine full of history.

The webcompat team will probably automatically test the top 1000 websites. But this is very rudimentary. It will not cover everything. Sites always break in strange ways.

What Can You Do To Help? Browse the Web with a 100 UA string
  1. Change the user agent string of your favorite browser. For example, if the string is Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10.15; rv:89.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/89.0, change it to be Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10.15; rv:100.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/100.0
  2. If you notice something that is breaking because of the UA string, file a report on webcompat. Do not forget to check that it is working with the normal UA string.
Automatic tests for your code

If your web app has a JavaScript Test suite, add a profile with a browser having 100 for its version number and check if it breaks. Test both Firefox and Chrome (mobile and desktop) because the libraries have different code paths depending on the user agent. Watch out for code like:

const ua_string = "Firefox/100.0"; ua_string.match(/Firefox\/(\d\d)/); // ["Firefox/10", "10"] ua_string.match(/Firefox\/(\d{2})/); // ["Firefox/10", "10"] ua_string.match(/Firefox\/(\d\d)\./); // null Compare version numbers as integer not string

Compare integer, not string when you have decided to have a minimum version for supporting a browser, because

"80" < "99" // true "80" < "100" // false parseInt("80", 10) < parseInt("99", 10) // true parseInt("80", 10) < parseInt("100", 10) // true Comments

If you have more questions, things I may have missed, different take on them. Feel free to comment…. Be mindful.


Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Cameron Kaiser: TenFourFox FPR32 SPR1 available

Mozilla planet - sn, 29/05/2021 - 06:15
TenFourFox Feature Parity Release 32 Security Parity Release 1 "32.1" is available for testing (downloads, hashes). There are no changes to the release notes except that Mozilla has lengthened 78ESR by a couple more weeks, so the end of official builds is now extended to October 5, 2021. Assuming no major problems, FPR32.1 will go live Monday evening Pacific time as usual.
Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Sam Foster: Ideas on a lower-carbon internet through scheduled downloads and Quality of Service requests

Mozilla planet - sn, 29/05/2021 - 02:32

Other titles:

  • The impact of internet use and what we might do about it?
  • Opportunities for powering more internet use with renewables
  • I want this thing, but not until later
  • A story of demand-side prioritization, scheduling and negotiation to take advantage of a fluxuating energy supply.

I recently got interested in how renewable power generation plays into the carbon footprint of internet usage. We need power to run and charge the devices we use to consume internet content, to run the networks that deliver that content to us, and to power the servers and data centers that house those servers.

Powering the internet eats up energy. The power necessary to serve up the files, do the computation, encode and package it all up to send it down the wire to each of the billions of devices making those requests consumes energy on an enormous scale. The process of hosting and delivering content is so power hungry, the industry is driven to large extent by the cost and availability of electricity. Data centers are even described in terms of the power they consume - as a reasonable proxy for the capacity they can supply.

One of the problems we hear about constantly is that the intermittent and relatively unpredicatable nature of wind and solar energy means it can only ever make up a portion of a region’s electricity generation capacity. There’s an expectation of always-on power availability; regardles of the weather or time of day, a factory must run, a building must be lit, and if a device requests some internet resource the request must be met immediately. So, we need reliable base load generation to meet most energy demands. Today, that means coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydro generation plants - which can be depended on to supply energy day and night, all year round. Nuclear and hydro are low-carbon, but they can also be expensive and problematic to develop. Wind and solar are much less so, but as long as their output is intermittent they can only form part of the solution for de-carbonizing electricity grids across the world - as long as demand not supply is king.

There are lots of approaches to tackling this. Better storage options (PDF) smooth out the intermittency of wind and solar - day to day if not seasonally. Carbon capture and sequestration lower the carbon footprint of fossil fuel power generation - but raise the cost. What if that on-demand, constant availability of those data centers’ capacity was itself a variable? Suppose the client device issuing the request had a way to indicate priority and expected delivery time, would that change the dynamic?

Wind power tends to peak early in the morning, solar in the afternoon. Internet traffic is at its highest during the day and evening, and some - most - is necessarily real-time. But if I’m watching a series on Netflix, the next episode could be downloaded at anytime, as long as its available by the next evening when I sit down to watch it. And for computational tasks - like compiling some code, running an automated test suite, or encoding video - sometimes you need it as soon as possible, other times its less urgent. Communicating priority and scheduling requirements (a.k.a Quality of Service) from the client through to the infrastructure used to fullfill a request would allow smarter balancing of demand and resources. It would open up the door to better use of less constant (non-baseload) energy sources. The server could defer on some tasks when power is least available or most expensive, and process them later when for example the sun comes up, or the wind blows. Smoothing out spikes in demand would also reduce the need for so-called “peaker” plants - typically natural gas power plants that are spun up to meet excess energy demand.

“Kestler: While intermittent power is a challenge for data center operations, the development of sensors, software tools and network capabilities will be at the forefront of advancing the deployment of renewables across the globe. The modernization of the grid will be dependent on large power consumers being capable of operating in a less stable flow of electrons.

What’s Ahead for Data Centers in 2021

Google already experimented with some of this, and its a fascinating and encouraging read.

“Results from our pilot suggest that by shifting compute jobs we can increase the amount of lower-carbon energy we consume”

Our data centers now work harder when the sun shines and wind blows

There are clearly going to be hurdles for wide-scale adoption of this kind of strategy, and its never going to work for all cases. But with a problem at this scale, a solution that shaves off 1%, or a fraction of 1% can still translate into huge monetary and carbon savings. So, what would it take? Are there practical steps that us non-data-center-operators can take to facilitate this kind of negotiation betweeen the client and the massive and indifferent upstream infrastructure that supports it?

The low hanging fruit in this scenario is video streaming. It represents an outsized percentage of all internet traffic - and data center load. Netflix alone generates 15% of all global internet traffic. What if even 1% of that could be shifted to be powered entirely by renewable energy, by virtue of the deferred-processing at the supply-side, or scheduled download at the client-side? Often its the case that when I click to watch video, I need it right there and then - perhaps it is a live event, or I didn’t know I needed it until that minute. Sometimes not though. If it was possible to schedule the download ensuring it was there on my device when I did need it, the benefits would ripple through the whole system - content delivery providers would save money and maybe the grid itself would be able to absorb more intermittent renewable generation.

There are other opportunities and I don’t want to get too hung up on specifics. But the notion of attaching Quality of Service in some way to some requests to facilitate smarter utilization of seasonal, regional and weather-dependent energy generation fluxuations seems promising to me. Fundamentally, power demand from worldwide internet traffic is extremely dynamic. We can better meet that demand with equally dynamic low and zero carbon sources if we can introduce patterns and signals at all levels of the system to allow it to plan and adapt.

When I get to the end of a piece like this I’m always left wondering “what is the point?”. Is this just a rant into the void, hoping someone listens? Its certainly not an actionable plan for change. Writing it down helps me process some of these ideas, and I hope it starts conversations and prompts you to spot these kind of indirect opportunities to tackle climate change. And if you are in a position to nudge any of this towards really existing in the world, that would be great. I work at Mozilla, we make a web browser and have our own substantial data-center and compute-time bill. I’ll be looking into what change I can help create there.

Some References

I collected a large list of papers and articles as I looked into this. Here’s a smaller list:

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Ludovic Hirlimann: My geeking plans for this summer

Thunderbird - to, 07/05/2015 - 10:39

During July I’ll be visiting family in Mongolia but I’ve also a few things that are very geeky that I want to do.

The first thing I want to do is plug the Ripe Atlas probes I have. It’s litle devices that look like that :

Hello @ripe #Atlas !

They enable anybody with a ripe atlas or ripe account to make measurements for dns queries and others. This helps making a global better internet. I have three of these probes I’d like to install. It’s good because last time I checked Mongolia didn’t have any active probe. These probes will also help Internet become better in Mongolia. I’ll need to buy some network cables before leaving because finding these in mongolia is going to be challenging. More on atlas at

The second thing I intend to do is map Mongolia a bit better on two projects the first is related to Mozilla and maps gps coordinateswith wifi access point. Only a little part of The capital Ulaanbaatar is covered as per I want this to be way more because having an open data source for this is important in the future. As mapping is my new thing I’ll probably edit Openstreetmap in order to make the urban parts of mongolia that I’ll visit way more usable on all the services that use OSM as a source of truth. There is already a project to map the capital city at but I believe osm can server more than just 50% of mongolia’s population.

I got inspired to write this post by mu son this morning, look what he is doing at 17 months :

Geeking on a Sun keyboard at 17 months
Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Andrew Sutherland: Talk Script: Firefox OS Email Performance Strategies

Thunderbird - to, 30/04/2015 - 22:11

Last week I gave a talk at the Philly Tech Week 2015 Dev Day organized by the delightful people at on some of the tricks/strategies we use in the Firefox OS Gaia Email app.  Note that the credit for implementing most of these techniques goes to the owner of the Email app’s front-end, James Burke.  Also, a special shout-out to Vivien for the initial DOM Worker patches for the email app.

I tried to avoid having slides that both I would be reading aloud as the audience read silently, so instead of slides to share, I have the talk script.  Well, I also have the slides here, but there’s not much to them.  The headings below are the content of the slides, except for the one time I inline some code.  Note that the live presentation must have differed slightly, because I’m sure I’m much more witty and clever in person than this script would make it seem…

Cover Slide: Who!

Hi, my name is Andrew Sutherland.  I work at Mozilla on the Firefox OS Email Application.  I’m here to share some strategies we used to make our HTML5 app Seem faster and sometimes actually Be faster.

What’s A Firefox OS (Screenshot Slide)

But first: What is a Firefox OS?  It’s a multiprocess Firefox gecko engine on an android linux kernel where all the apps including the system UI are implemented using HTML5, CSS, and JavaScript.  All the apps use some combination of standard web APIs and APIs that we hope to standardize in some form.

Firefox OS homescreen screenshot Firefox OS clock app screenshot Firefox OS email app screenshot

Here are some screenshots.  We’ve got the default home screen app, the clock app, and of course, the email app.

It’s an entirely client-side offline email application, supporting IMAP4, POP3, and ActiveSync.  The goal, like all Firefox OS apps shipped with the phone, is to give native apps on other platforms a run for their money.

And that begins with starting up fast.

Fast Startup: The Problems

But that’s frequently easier said than done.  Slow-loading websites are still very much a thing.

The good news for the email application is that a slow network isn’t one of its problems.  It’s pre-loaded on the phone.  And even if it wasn’t, because of the security implications of the TCP Web API and the difficulty of explaining this risk to users in a way they won’t just click through, any TCP-using app needs to be a cryptographically signed zip file approved by a marketplace.  So we do load directly from flash.

However, it’s not like flash on cellphones is equivalent to an infinitely fast, zero-latency network connection.  And even if it was, in a naive app you’d still try and load all of your HTML, CSS, and JavaScript at the same time because the HTML file would reference them all.  And that adds up.

It adds up in the form of event loop activity and competition with other threads and processes.  With the exception of Promises which get their own micro-task queue fast-lane, the web execution model is the same as all other UI event loops; events get scheduled and then executed in the same order they are scheduled.  Loading data from an asynchronous API like IndexedDB means that your read result gets in line behind everything else that’s scheduled.  And in the case of the bulk of shipped Firefox OS devices, we only have a single processor core so the thread and process contention do come into play.

So we try not to be a naive.

Seeming Fast at Startup: The HTML Cache

If we’re going to optimize startup, it’s good to start with what the user sees.  Once an account exists for the email app, at startup we display the default account’s inbox folder.

What is the least amount of work that we can do to show that?  Cache a screenshot of the Inbox.  The problem with that, of course, is that a static screenshot is indistinguishable from an unresponsive application.

So we did the next best thing, (which is) we cache the actual HTML we display.  At startup we load a minimal HTML file, our concatenated CSS, and just enough Javascript to figure out if we should use the HTML cache and then actually use it if appropriate.  It’s not always appropriate, like if our application is being triggered to display a compose UI or from a new mail notification that wants to show a specific message or a different folder.  But this is a decision we can make synchronously so it doesn’t slow us down.

Local Storage: Okay in small doses

We implement this by storing the HTML in localStorage.

Important Disclaimer!  LocalStorage is a bad API.  It’s a bad API because it’s synchronous.  You can read any value stored in it at any time, without waiting for a callback.  Which means if the data is not in memory the browser needs to block its event loop or spin a nested event loop until the data has been read from disk.  Browsers avoid this now by trying to preload the Entire contents of local storage for your origin into memory as soon as they know your page is being loaded.  And then they keep that information, ALL of it, in memory until your page is gone.

So if you store a megabyte of data in local storage, that’s a megabyte of data that needs to be loaded in its entirety before you can use any of it, and that hangs around in scarce phone memory.

To really make the point: do not use local storage, at least not directly.  Use a library like localForage that will use IndexedDB when available, and then fails over to WebSQLDatabase and local storage in that order.

Now, having sufficiently warned you of the terrible evils of local storage, I can say with a sorta-clear conscience… there are upsides in this very specific case.

The synchronous nature of the API means that once we get our turn in the event loop we can act immediately.  There’s no waiting around for an IndexedDB read result to gets its turn on the event loop.

This matters because although the concept of loading is simple from a User Experience perspective, there’s no standard to back it up right now.  Firefox OS’s UX desires are very straightforward.  When you tap on an app, we zoom it in.  Until the app is loaded we display the app’s icon in the center of the screen.  Unfortunately the standards are still assuming that the content is right there in the HTML.  This works well for document-based web pages or server-powered web apps where the contents of the page are baked in.  They work less well for client-only web apps where the content lives in a database and has to be dynamically retrieved.

The two events that exist are:

DOMContentLoaded” fires when the document has been fully parsed and all scripts not tagged as “async” have run.  If there were stylesheets referenced prior to the script tags, the script tags will wait for the stylesheet loads.

load” fires when the document has been fully loaded; stylesheets, images, everything.

But none of these have anything to do with the content in the page saying it’s actually done.  This matters because these standards also say nothing about IndexedDB reads or the like.  We tried to create a standards consensus around this, but it’s not there yet.  So Firefox OS just uses the “load” event to decide an app or page has finished loading and it can stop showing your app icon.  This largely avoids the dreaded “flash of unstyled content” problem, but it also means that your webpage or app needs to deal with this period of time by displaying a loading UI or just accepting a potentially awkward transient UI state.

(Trivial HTML slide)

<link rel=”stylesheet” ...> <script ...></script> DOMContentLoaded!

This is the important summary of our index.html.

We reference our stylesheet first.  It includes all of our styles.  We never dynamically load stylesheets because that compels a style recalculation for all nodes and potentially a reflow.  We would have to have an awful lot of style declarations before considering that.

Then we have our single script file.  Because the stylesheet precedes the script, our script will not execute until the stylesheet has been loaded.  Then our script runs and we synchronously insert our HTML from local storage.  Then DOMContentLoaded can fire.  At this point the layout engine has enough information to perform a style recalculation and determine what CSS-referenced image resources need to be loaded for buttons and icons, then those load, and then we’re good to be displayed as the “load” event can fire.

After that, we’re displaying an interactive-ish HTML document.  You can scroll, you can press on buttons and the :active state will apply.  So things seem real.

Being Fast: Lazy Loading and Optimized Layers

But now we need to try and get some logic in place as quickly as possible that will actually cash the checks that real-looking HTML UI is writing.  And the key to that is only loading what you need when you need it, and trying to get it to load as quickly as possible.

There are many module loading and build optimizing tools out there, and most frameworks have a preferred or required way of handling this.  We used the RequireJS family of Asynchronous Module Definition loaders, specifically the alameda loader and the r-dot-js optimizer.

One of the niceties of the loader plugin model is that we are able to express resource dependencies as well as code dependencies.

RequireJS Loader Plugins

var fooModule = require('./foo'); var htmlString = require('text!./foo.html'); var localizedDomNode = require('tmpl!./foo.html');

The standard Common JS loader semantics used by node.js and io.js are the first one you see here.  Load the module, return its exports.

But RequireJS loader plugins also allow us to do things like the second line where the exclamation point indicates that the load should occur using a loader plugin, which is itself a module that conforms to the loader plugin contract.  In this case it’s saying load the file foo.html as raw text and return it as a string.

But, wait, there’s more!  loader plugins can do more than that.  The third example uses a loader that loads the HTML file using the ‘text’ plugin under the hood, creates an HTML document fragment, and pre-localizes it using our localization library.  And this works un-optimized in a browser, no compilation step needed, but it can also be optimized.

So when our optimizer runs, it bundles up the core modules we use, plus, the modules for our “message list” card that displays the inbox.  And the message list card loads its HTML snippets using the template loader plugin.  The r-dot-js optimizer then locates these dependencies and the loader plugins also have optimizer logic that results in the HTML strings being inlined in the resulting optimized file.  So there’s just one single javascript file to load with no extra HTML file dependencies or other loads.

We then also run the optimizer against our other important cards like the “compose” card and the “message reader” card.  We don’t do this for all cards because it can be hard to carve up the module dependency graph for optimization without starting to run into cases of overlap where many optimized files redundantly include files loaded by other optimized files.

Plus, we have another trick up our sleeve:

Seeming Fast: Preloading

Preloading.  Our cards optionally know the other cards they can load.  So once we display a card, we can kick off a preload of the cards that might potentially be displayed.  For example, the message list card can trigger the compose card and the message reader card, so we can trigger a preload of both of those.

But we don’t go overboard with preloading in the frontend because we still haven’t actually loaded the back-end that actually does all the emaily email stuff.  The back-end is also chopped up into optimized layers along account type lines and online/offline needs, but the main optimized JS file still weighs in at something like 17 thousand lines of code with newlines retained.

So once our UI logic is loaded, it’s time to kick-off loading the back-end.  And in order to avoid impacting the responsiveness of the UI both while it loads and when we’re doing steady-state processing, we run it in a DOM Worker.

Being Responsive: Workers and SharedWorkers

DOM Workers are background JS threads that lack access to the page’s DOM, communicating with their owning page via message passing with postMessage.  Normal workers are owned by a single page.  SharedWorkers can be accessed via multiple pages from the same document origin.

By doing this, we stay out of the way of the main thread.  This is getting less important as browser engines support Asynchronous Panning & Zooming or “APZ” with hardware-accelerated composition, tile-based rendering, and all that good stuff.  (Some might even call it magic.)

When Firefox OS started, we didn’t have APZ, so any main-thread logic had the serious potential to result in janky scrolling and the impossibility of rendering at 60 frames per second.  It’s a lot easier to get 60 frames-per-second now, but even asynchronous pan and zoom potentially has to wait on dispatching an event to the main thread to figure out if the user’s tap is going to be consumed by app logic and preventDefault called on it.  APZ does this because it needs to know whether it should start scrolling or not.

And speaking of 60 frames-per-second…

Being Fast: Virtual List Widgets

…the heart of a mail application is the message list.  The expected UX is to be able to fling your way through the entire list of what the email app knows about and see the messages there, just like you would on a native app.

This is admittedly one of the areas where native apps have it easier.  There are usually list widgets that explicitly have a contract that says they request data on an as-needed basis.  They potentially even include data bindings so you can just point them at a data-store.

But HTML doesn’t yet have a concept of instantiate-on-demand for the DOM, although it’s being discussed by Firefox layout engine developers.  For app purposes, the DOM is a scene graph.  An extremely capable scene graph that can handle huge documents, but there are footguns and it’s arguably better to err on the side of fewer DOM nodes.

So what the email app does is we create a scroll-region div and explicitly size it based on the number of messages in the mail folder we’re displaying.  We create and render enough message summary nodes to cover the current screen, 3 screens worth of messages in the direction we’re scrolling, and then we also retain up to 3 screens worth in the direction we scrolled from.  We also pre-fetch 2 more screens worth of messages from the database.  These constants were arrived at experimentally on prototype devices.

We listen to “scroll” events and issue database requests and move DOM nodes around and update them as the user scrolls.  For any potentially jarring or expensive transitions such as coordinate space changes from new messages being added above the current scroll position, we wait for scrolling to stop.

Nodes are absolutely positioned within the scroll area using their ‘top’ style but translation transforms also work.  We remove nodes from the DOM, then update their position and their state before re-appending them.  We do this because the browser APZ logic tries to be clever and figure out how to create an efficient series of layers so that it can pre-paint as much of the DOM as possible in graphic buffers, AKA layers, that can be efficiently composited by the GPU.  Its goal is that when the user is scrolling, or something is being animated, that it can just move the layers around the screen or adjust their opacity or other transforms without having to ask the layout engine to re-render portions of the DOM.

When our message elements are added to the DOM with an already-initialized absolute position, the APZ logic lumps them together as something it can paint in a single layer along with the other elements in the scrolling region.  But if we start moving them around while they’re still in the DOM, the layerization logic decides that they might want to independently move around more in the future and so each message item ends up in its own layer.  This slows things down.  But by removing them and re-adding them it sees them as new with static positions and decides that it can lump them all together in a single layer.  Really, we could just create new DOM nodes, but we produce slightly less garbage this way and in the event there’s a bug, it’s nicer to mess up with 30 DOM nodes displayed incorrectly rather than 3 million.

But as neat as the layerization stuff is to know about on its own, I really mention it to underscore 2 suggestions:

1, Use a library when possible.  Getting on and staying on APZ fast-paths is not trivial, especially across browser engines.  So it’s a very good idea to use a library rather than rolling your own.

2, Use developer tools.  APZ is tricky to reason about and even the developers who write the Async pan & zoom logic can be surprised by what happens in complex real-world situations.  And there ARE developer tools available that help you avoid needing to reason about this.  Firefox OS has easy on-device developer tools that can help diagnose what’s going on or at least help tell you whether you’re making things faster or slower:

– it’s got a frames-per-second overlay; you do need to scroll like mad to get the system to want to render 60 frames-per-second, but it makes it clear what the net result is

– it has paint flashing that overlays random colors every time it paints the DOM into a layer.  If the screen is flashing like a discotheque or has a lot of smeared rainbows, you know something’s wrong because the APZ logic is not able to to just reuse its layers.

– devtools can enable drawing cool colored borders around the layers APZ has created so you can see if layerization is doing something crazy

There’s also fancier and more complicated tools in Firefox and other browsers like Google Chrome to let you see what got painted, what the layer tree looks like, et cetera.

And that’s my spiel.


The source code to Gaia can be found at

The email app in particular can be found at

(I also asked for questions here.)

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Joshua Cranmer: Breaking news

Thunderbird - wo, 01/04/2015 - 09:00
It was brought to my attention recently by reputable sources that the recent announcement of increased usage in recent years produced an internal firestorm within Mozilla. Key figures raised alarm that some of the tech press had interpreted the blog post as a sign that Thunderbird was not, in fact, dead. As a result, they asked Thunderbird community members to make corrections to emphasize that Mozilla was trying to kill Thunderbird.

The primary fear, it seems, is that knowledge that the largest open-source email client was still receiving regular updates would impel its userbase to agitate for increased funding and maintenance of the client to help forestall potential threats to the open nature of email as well as to innovate in the space of providing usable and private communication channels. Such funding, however, would be an unaffordable luxury and would only distract Mozilla from its central goal of building developer productivity tooling. Persistent rumors that Mozilla would be willing to fund Thunderbird were it renamed Firefox Email were finally addressed with the comment, "such a renaming would violate our current policy that all projects be named Persona."

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Joshua Cranmer: Why email is hard, part 8: why email security failed

Thunderbird - ti, 13/01/2015 - 05:38
This post is part 8 of an intermittent series exploring the difficulties of writing an email client. Part 1 describes a brief history of the infrastructure. Part 2 discusses internationalization. Part 3 discusses MIME. Part 4 discusses email addresses. Part 5 discusses the more general problem of email headers. Part 6 discusses how email security works in practice. Part 7 discusses the problem of trust. This part discusses why email security has largely failed.

At the end of the last part in this series, I posed the question, "Which email security protocol is most popular?" The answer to the question is actually neither S/MIME nor PGP, but a third protocol, DKIM. I haven't brought up DKIM until now because DKIM doesn't try to secure email in the same vein as S/MIME or PGP, but I still consider it relevant to discussing email security.

Unquestionably, DKIM is the only security protocol for email that can be considered successful. There are perhaps 4 billion active email addresses [1]. Of these, about 1-2 billion use DKIM. In contrast, S/MIME can count a few million users, and PGP at best a few hundred thousand. No other security protocols have really caught on past these three. Why did DKIM succeed where the others fail?

DKIM's success stems from its relatively narrow focus. It is nothing more than a cryptographic signature of the message body and a smattering of headers, and is itself stuck in the DKIM-Signature header. It is meant to be applied to messages only on outgoing servers and read and processed at the recipient mail server—it completely bypasses clients. That it bypasses clients allows it to solve the problem of key discovery and key management very easily (public keys are stored in DNS, which is already a key part of mail delivery), and its role in spam filtering is strong motivation to get it implemented quickly (it is 7 years old as of this writing). It's also simple: this one paragraph description is basically all you need to know [2].

The failure of S/MIME and PGP to see large deployment is certainly a large topic of discussion on myriads of cryptography enthusiast mailing lists, which often like to partake in propositions of new end-to-end encryption of email paradigms, such as the recent DIME proposal. Quite frankly, all of these solutions suffer broadly from at least the same 5 fundamental weaknesses, and I see it unlikely that a protocol will come about that can fix these weaknesses well enough to become successful.

The first weakness, and one I've harped about many times already, is UI. Most email security UI is abysmal and generally at best usable only by enthusiasts. At least some of this is endemic to security: while it mean seem obvious how to convey what an email signature or an encrypted email signifies, how do you convey the distinctions between sign-and-encrypt, encrypt-and-sign, or an S/MIME triple wrap? The Web of Trust model used by PGP (and many other proposals) is even worse, in that inherently requires users to do other actions out-of-band of email to work properly.

Trust is the second weakness. Consider that, for all intents and purposes, the email address is the unique identifier on the Internet. By extension, that implies that a lot of services are ultimately predicated on the notion that the ability to receive and respond to an email is a sufficient means to identify an individual. However, the entire purpose of secure email, or at least of end-to-end encryption, is subtly based on the fact that other people in fact have access to your mailbox, thus destroying the most natural ways to build trust models on the Internet. The quest for anonymity or privacy also renders untenable many other plausible ways to establish trust (e.g., phone verification or government-issued ID cards).

Key discovery is another weakness, although it's arguably the easiest one to solve. If you try to keep discovery independent of trust, the problem of key discovery is merely picking a protocol to publish and another one to find keys. Some of these already exist: PGP key servers, for example, or using DANE to publish S/MIME or PGP keys.

Key management, on the other hand, is a more troubling weakness. S/MIME, for example, basically works without issue if you have a certificate, but managing to get an S/MIME certificate is a daunting task (necessitated, in part, by its trust model—see how these issues all intertwine?). This is also where it's easy to say that webmail is an unsolvable problem, but on further reflection, I'm not sure I agree with that statement anymore. One solution is just storing the private key with the webmail provider (you're trusting them as an email client, after all), but it's also not impossible to imagine using phones or flash drives as keystores. Other key management factors are more difficult to solve: people who lose their private keys or key rollover create thorny issues. There is also the difficulty of managing user expectations: if I forget my password to most sites (even my email provider), I can usually get it reset somehow, but when a private key is lost, the user is totally and completely out of luck.

Of course, there is one glaring and almost completely insurmountable problem. Encrypted email fundamentally precludes certain features that we have come to take for granted. The lesser known is server-side search and filtration. While there exist some mechanisms to do search on encrypted text, those mechanisms rely on the fact that you can manipulate the text to change the message, destroying the integrity feature of secure email. They also tend to be fairly expensive. It's easy to just say "who needs server-side stuff?", but the contingent of people who do email on smartphones would not be happy to have to pay the transfer rates to download all the messages in their folder just to find one little email, nor the energy costs of doing it on the phone. And those who have really large folders—Fastmail has a design point of 1,000,000 in a single folder—would still prefer to not have to transfer all their mail even on desktops.

The more well-known feature that would disappear is spam filtration. Consider that 90% of all email is spam, and if you think your spam folder is too slim for that to be true, it's because your spam folder only contains messages that your email provider wasn't sure were spam. The loss of server-side spam filtering would dramatically increase the cost of spam (a 10% reduction in efficiency would double the amount of server storage, per my calculations), and client-side spam filtering is quite literally too slow [3] and too costly (remember smartphones? Imagine having your email take 10 times as much energy and bandwidth) to be a tenable option. And privacy or anonymity tends to be an invitation to abuse (cf. Tor and Wikipedia). Proposed solutions to the spam problem are so common that there is a checklist containing most of the objections.

When you consider all of those weaknesses, it is easy to be pessimistic about the possibility of wide deployment of powerful email security solutions. The strongest future—all email is encrypted, including metadata—is probably impossible or at least woefully impractical. That said, if you weaken some of the assumptions (say, don't desire all or most traffic to be encrypted), then solutions seem possible if difficult.

This concludes my discussion of email security, at least until things change for the better. I don't have a topic for the next part in this series picked out (this part actually concludes the set I knew I wanted to discuss when I started), although OAuth and DMARC are two topics that have been bugging me enough recently to consider writing about. They also have the unfortunate side effect of being things likely to see changes in the near future, unlike most of the topics I've discussed so far. But rest assured that I will find more difficulties in the email infrastructure to write about before long!

[1] All of these numbers are crude estimates and are accurate to only an order of magnitude. To justify my choices: I assume 1 email address per Internet user (this overestimates the developing world and underestimates the developed world). The largest webmail providers have given numbers that claim to be 1 billion active accounts between them, and all of them use DKIM. S/MIME is guessed by assuming that any smartcard deployment supports S/MIME, and noting that the US Department of Defense and Estonia's digital ID project are both heavy users of such smartcards. PGP is estimated from the size of the strong set and old numbers on the reachable set from the core Web of Trust.
[2] Ever since last April, it's become impossible to mention DKIM without referring to DMARC, as a result of Yahoo's controversial DMARC policy. A proper discussion of DMARC (and why what Yahoo did was controversial) requires explaining the mail transmission architecture and spam, however, so I'll defer that to a later post. It's also possible that changes in this space could happen within the next year.
[3] According to a former GMail spam employee, if it takes you as long as three minutes to calculate reputation, the spammer wins.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet